Publications prior to 1995

1994

Davis, M.B., S. Sugita, R.R. Calcote, J.B. Ferrari, and L.E. Frelich. 1994. Historical development of alternate communities in a hemlock-hardwood forest in Michigan, USA. In Large-scale Ecology and Conservation Biology, eds., R. May, N. Webb, and P. Edwards, 19-39. Oxford: Blackwell.

Frelich, L.E., and L.J. Graumlich. 1994. Age class distribution and spatial patterns in an old-growth hemlock-hardwood forest. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 24:1939-1947.

Jaakko Pöyry Consulting, Inc. 1994. Generic Environmental Impact Statement study on timber harvesting and forest management in Minnesota. 500+ pages. (L.E. Frelich co-authored the document as part of the 4-member GEIS core group. The document was peer reviewed).

Lorimer, C.G., and L.E. Frelich. 1994. Disturbance and eastern old growth. Journal of Forestry 92:33-38.

Oleksyn, J., W. Prus-Gowacki, M. Giertych & P.B. Reich. 1994. Relation between genetic diversity, productivity and pollution impact in a 1912 experiment with East European Pinus sylvestris populations. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 24:2390-2394.

Oleksyn, J. & P.B. Reich. 1994. Habitat destruction and biodiversity in Poland. Conservation Biology 8:943-960.

Reich, P.B., J. Oleksyn & M.G. Tjoelker. 1994. Seed mass effects on germination and growth of diverse European Scots pine populations. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 24:306-320.

Reich, P.B., J. Oleksyn & M.G. Tjoelker. 1994. Relationships between aluminum, calcium and net carbon dioxide exchange among diverse Scots pine provenances under pollution stress in Poland. Oecologia 97:82-92.

Reich, P.B. & M.B. Walters. 1994. Photosynthesis-nitrogen relations in Amazonian tree species. II. Variation in nitrogen vis-à-vis specific leaf area influences mass and area-based expressions. Oecologia 97:73-81.

Reich, P.B., M.B. Walters, D.S. Ellsworth, & C. Uhl. 1994. Photosynthesis-nitrogen relations in Amazonian tree species. I. Patterns among species and communities. Oecologia 97:62-72.

Tjoelker, M.G., J.C. Volin, J. Oleksyn & P.B. Reich. 1994. An open-air system for exposing forest canopy branches to ozone pollution. Plant, Cell & Environment 17:211-218.

1993

Ellsworth, D.S. & P.B. Reich. 1993. Canopy structure and vertical patterns of photosynthesis and related leaf traits in a deciduous forest. Oecologia 96:169-178.

Frelich, L.E. 1993. Fire policy in the BWCAW: discussion of some ecological issues. BWCA Wilderness News, Autumn: 6-7.

Frelich, L.E., R.R. Calcote, M.B. Davis, and J. Pastor. 1993. Patch formation and maintenance in an old growth hemlock-hardwood forest. Ecology 74:513-527.

Gower, S.T., P.B. Reich & Y. Son. 1993. Canopy dynamics and aboveground production of five tree species with different leaf longevity's. Tree Physiology 12:327-345.

Ko, L.J. & P.B. Reich. 1993. Oak tree effects on soil and herbaceous vegetation in savannas and pastures in Wisconsin. American Midland Natural

Kruger, E.L. & P.B. Reich. 1993. Coppicing alters ecophysiology of Quercus rubra saplings in Wisconsin forest openings. Physiologia Plantarum 89:741-750.

Kruger, E.L. & P.B. Reich. 1993. Coppicing affects growth, root:shoot relations and ecophysiology of potted Quercus rubra seedlings. Physiologia Plantarum 89:751-760.

Lindroth, R.L., P.B. Reich, M.G. Tjoelker, J.C. Volin & J. Oleksyn. 1993. Light environment alters response to ozone stress in Acer saccharum Marsh. and hybrid Populus L. seedlings. III. Consequences for gypsy moth performance. New Phytologist 124:647-651.

Reich, P.B. 1993. Reconciling apparent discrepancies among studies relating life-span, structure and function of leaves in contrasting plant life forms and climates: "the blind men and the elephant retold". Functional Ecology 7:721-725.

Reich, P.B., M.B. Walters, S.C. Krause, D. Vanderklein, K.F. Raffa, T. Tabone. 1993. Growth, nutrition and gas exchange of Pinus resinosa following artificial defoliation. Trees 7:67-77.

Tjoelker, M.G., J.C. Volin, J. Oleksyn & P.B. Reich. 1993. Light environment alters response to ozone stress in Acer saccharum Marsh. and hybrid Populus L. seedlings. In situ net CO2 exchange and growth. New Phytologist 124:627-636.

Volin, J.C., M.G. Tjoelker, J. Oleksyn & P.B. Reich. 1993. Light environment alters response to ozone stress in Acer saccharum Marsh. and hybrid Populus L. seedlings. II. Diagnostic gas exchange and leaf chemistry. New Phytologist 124:637-646.

Walters, M.B., E.L. Kruger & P.B. Reich. 1993. Growth, biomass distribution and CO2 exchange of northern hardwood seedlings in high and low light: relationships with successional status and shade tolerance. Oecologia 94:7-16.

Walters, M.B., E.L. Kruger & P.B. Reich. 1993. Relative growth rate in relation to physiological and morphological traits for northern hardwood seedlings: species, light environment and ontogenetic considerations. Oecologia 96:219-231.

1992

Davis, M.B., S. Sugita, R.R. Calcote, and L.E. Frelich. 1992. Effects of invasion by Tsuga Canadensis on a North American forest ecosystem. In Responses of forest ecosystems to environmental changes, eds., A. Teller, P. Mathy, and J.N.R. Jeffers, 34-44. New York: Elsevier Applied Science.

Ellsworth, D.S. & P.B. Reich. 1992. Leaf mass per area, nitrogen content and photosynthetic carbon gain in Acer saccharum seedlings in contrasting forest light environments. Functional Ecology 6:423-435.

Ellsworth, D.S. & P.B. Reich. 1992. Water relations and gas exchange of Acer saccharum seedlings in contrasting natural light and water regimes. Tree Physiology 10:1-20.

Frelich, L.E. 1992. Predicting dimensional relationships for Twin Cities shade trees. Miscellaneous publication of the Legislative Commission on Minnesota Resources.

Frelich, L.E. 1992. The relationship of natural disturbances to white pine stand development. In White Pine Symposium Proceedings: History, Ecology, Policy and Management, eds., R.A. Stine and M.J. Baughman, 27-37. St Paul, MN: Department of Forest Resources, College of Natural Resources and Minnesota Extension Service.

Jaakko Pöyry Consulting, Inc. 1992. Forest Wildlife: A technical paper for a generic environmental impact statement on timber harvesting and forest management in Minnesota. (L.E. Frelich provided technical editing and co-authored the document as part of a 5-member study team, document was peer reviewed).

Jaakko Pöyry Consulting, Inc. 1992. Biodiversity: A technical paper for a generic environmental impact statement on timber harvesting and forest management in Minnesota. (L.E. Frelich authored the document which was peer reviewed).

Jaakko Pöyry Consulting, Inc. 1992. Global Atmospheric Change: A technical paper for a generic environmental impact statement on timber harvesting and forest management in Minnesota. (L.E. Frelich authored the document).

Lorimer, C.G., L.E. Frelich, and E.V. Nordheim. 1992. Forest-tree growth rates and probability of gap origin--a reply to Clark. Ecology 73:1124-1128.

Oleksyn, J., W. Chalupka, M.G. Tjoelker & P.B. Reich. 1992. Geographic origin of Pinus sylvestris populations influences the effects of air pollution on flowering and growth. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution 62:201-212.

Oleksyn, J., M.G. Tjoelker & P.B. Reich. 1992. Growth and biomass partitioning of populations of European Pinus sylvestris L. under simulated 50º and 60º N daylengths: evidence for photoperiodic ecotypes. New Phytologist 120:561-574.

Oleksyn, J., M.G. Tjoelker & P.B. Reich. 1992. Whole-plant CO2 exchange of seedlings of two Pinus sylvestris L. provenances grown under simulated photoperiodic conditions of 50º and 60º N. Trees 6:225-231.

Reich, P.B., M.B. Walters & D.S. Ellsworth. 1992. Leaf lifespan in relation to leaf, plant and stand characteristics among diverse ecosystems. Ecological Monographs 62:365-392.

Sutinen, M.L., J.P. Palta & P.B. Reich. 1992. Seasonal differences in freezing stress resistance in two pine species: evaluation of the conductivity method. Tree Physiology 11:241-254.

1991

Frelich, L.E., and C.G. Lorimer. 1991. A simulation of landscape dynamics in old-growth northern hardwood forests. Journal of Ecology 79:223-233.

Frelich, L.E., and C.G. Lorimer. 1991. Natural disturbance regimes in hemlock-hardwood forests of the Upper Great Lakes Region. Ecological Monographs 61:145-164.

Phillips, M., ed. 1991. Carbon dioxide budgets in Minnesota and recommendations on reducing net emissions with trees. St. Paul, MN: Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, Division of Forestry. (L.E. Frelich contributed about 12 pages of material on carbons pools of Minnesota and carbon fixation over time by shade trees and forest plantation.)

Reich, P.B. 1991. Forest decline and air pollution (Book Review). Tree Physiology 9:523-526.

Reich, P.B., D.S. Ellsworth & M.B. Walters. 1991. Leaf development and season influence the relationships between leaf nitrogen, leaf mass per area, and photosynthesis in maple and oak trees. Plant, Cell & Environment 14:251-259.

Reich, P.B., C. Uhl, M.B. Walters & D.S. Ellsworth. 1991. Leaf lifespan as a determinant of leaf structure and function among 23 Amazonian tree species.Oecologia 86:16-24.

1990

Reich, P.B., M.D. Abrams, D.S. Ellsworth, E.L. Kruger & T.J. Tabone. 1990. Fire affects ecophysiology and community dynamics of central Wisconsin oak forest regeneration. Ecology 71:2179-2190.

Reich, P.B., D.S. Ellsworth, B.D. Kloeppel, J.H. Fownes & S.T. Gower. 1990. Vertical variation in canopy structure and CO2 exchange of oak-maple forests: influence of ozone, nitrogen and other factors on simulated canopy carbon gain. Tree Physiology 7:329-345.

Reich, P.B. & L. Middendorf. 1990. Sources of variation in porometry data. Plant, Cell and Environment 13: 879.

1989

Bockheim, J.G., J.E. Leide, and L.E. Frelich. 1989. Red pine growth and chemical composition of foliage and forest floors across a precipitation-chemistry gradient in Wisconsin. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 19:1543-1549.

Frelich, L.E., J.G. Bockheim, and J.E. Leide. 1989. Historical trends in tree-ring growth and chemistry across an air-quality gradient in Wisconsin. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 19:113-121.

Harrington, R.A., B.J. Brown & P.B. Reich. 1989. Ecophysiology of exotic and native shrubs in southern Wisconsin. I. Relationship of leaf characteristics, resource availability and phenology to seasonal patterns of carbon gain. Oecologia 80:356-367.

Harrington, R.A., B.J. Brown, P.B. Reich & J.H. Fownes. 1989. Ecophysiology of exotic and native shrubs in southern Wisconsin. II. Annual growth and carbon gain. Oecologia 80:368-373.

Lorimer, C.G., and L.E. Frelich. 1989. A methodology for estimating canopy disturbance frequency and intensity in dense temperate forests. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 19:651-663.

Reich, P.B. & T.M. Hinckley. 1989. Influence of pre-dawn water potential and soil-to-leaf hydraulic conductance on maximum daily leaf diffusive conductance in two oak species. Functional Ecology 3:719-726.

Reich, P.B., M.B. Walters, & T.J. Tabone. 1989. Response of Ulmus americana seedlings to varying nitrogen and water status. II. Water and nitrogen-use efficiency in photosynthesis. Tree Physiology 5:173-184.

Walters, M.B. & P.B. Reich. 1989. Response of Ulmus americana seedlings to varying nitrogen and water status. I. Photosynthesis and growth. Tree Physiology 5:159-172.

1988

Frelich, L.E., and G.L. Martin. 1988. Effects of crown expansion into gaps on evaluation of disturbance intensity in northern hardwood forests. Forest Science 34:530-536.

Lorimer, C.G., L.E. Frelich, and E.V. Nordheim. 1988. Estimating gap origin probabilities for canopy trees. Ecology 69:778-785.

Reich, P.B. & R. Borchert. 1988. Changes with leaf age in stomatal function of several tropical tree species. Biotropica 20:60-69.

Reich, P.B. & A.W. Schoettle. 1988. Role of phosphorus and nitrogen in photosynthetic and whole plant carbon gain and nutrient-use efficiency in eastern white pine. Oecologia 77:25-33.

Reich, P.B., A.W. Schoettle, H.F. Stroo & R.G. Amundson. 1988. Influence of O3 and acid rain on white pine seedlings grown in five soils. III. Nutrient relations. Canadian Journal of Botany 66:1517-1531.

Reich, P.B., M.B. Walters, & T J. Tabone. 1988. Variation in response of five identical null-balance porometers. Plant, Cell and Environment 11:785-786.

Stroo, H.F., P.B. Reich, A.W. Schoettle & R.G. Amundson. 1988. Influence of O3 and acid rain on white pine seedlings grown in five soils. II. Mycorrhizae. Canadian Journal of Botany 66:1510-1515.

1987

Amundson, R.G., R.J. Kohut, A.W. Schoettle, R.M. Raba & P.B. Reich. 1987. Correlative reduction in whole-plant photosynthesis and yield of winter wheat caused by ozone. Phytopathology 77:75-79.

Reich, P.B. 1987. Quantifying plant response to ozone: a unifying theory. Tree Physiology 3:63-91.

Reich, P.B., A.W. Schoettle, H.F. Stroo, J. Troiano & R.G. Amundson. 1987. Influence of O3 and acid rain on white pine seedlings grown in five soils. I. Net photosynthesis and growth. Canadian Journal of Botany 65: 977-987.

Sena-Gomes, A.R., T.T. Kozlowski & P.B. Reich. 1987. Some physiological responses of Theobroma cacao L. (var. Catango) seedlings to air humidity. New Phytologist 107:591-602.

1986

Amundson, R.G., R.M. Raba, A.W. Schoettle & P.B. Reich. 1986. Response of soybean to low concentrations of ozone: II. Effects on growth, biomass allocation and flowering. Journal of Environmental Quality 15:161-167.

Reich, P.B., A.W. Schoettle & R.G. Amundson. 1986. Effects of ozone and acidic rain on photosynthesis and growth in sugar maple and northern red oak seedlings. Environmental Pollution 40:1-15.

Reich, P.B., A.W. Schoettle, R. Raba & R.G. Amundson. 1986. Response of soybean to low concentrations of ozone: I. Reductions in leaf and whole plant net photosynthesis and leaf chlorophyll content. Journal of Environmental Quality 15:31-36.

Reich, P.B., H.F. Stroo, A.W. Schoettle & R.G. Amundson. 1986. Acid rain and ozone influence mycorrhizal infection in tree seedlings. J. Air Pollution Control Assoc. 36:724-726.

1985

Frelich, L.E., and C.G. Lorimer. 1985. Current and predicted long-term effects of deer browsing in hemlock forests in Michigan, USA. Biological Conservation 34:99-120.

Reich, P.B. & J.P. Lassoie. 1985. Influence of low concentrations of ozone on growth, biomass partitioning, and leaf senescence in young hybrid poplar plants. Environmental Pollution 39:39-51.

Reich, P.B., A.W. Schoettle & R.G. Amundson. 1985. Effects of low concentrations of O3, leaf age, and water stress on leaf diffusive conductance and water-use efficiency in soybean. Physiologia Plantarum 63:58-64.

Reich, P.B., A.W. Schoettle, H. Stroo, J. Troiano, & R.G. Amundson. 1985 Effects of O3, SO2, and simulated acidic rain on mycorrhizal infection in northern red oak. Canadian Journal of Botany 63:2049-2055.

Reich, P.B. & R.G. Amundson. 1985. Ambient levels of O3 reduce net photosynthesis in tree and crop species. Science 230:566-570.

1984

Lorimer, C.G., and L.E. Frelich. 1984. A simulation of equilibrium diameter distributions of sugar maple (Acer saccharum). Bulletin Torrey Botanical Club 111:193-199.

Reich, P.B. 1984. Loss of stomatal function in aging hybrid poplar leaves. Annals of Botany 53:691-698.

Reich, P.B. 1984. Oscillations in stomatal conductance of hybrid poplar leaves in the light and dark. Physiologia Plantarum 61:541-548.

Reich, P.B. & R.G. Amundson. 1984. Low level O3 and/or SO2 exposure causes a linear decline in soybean yield. Environmental Pollution 34:345-355.

Reich, P.B. & R. Borchert. 1984. Water stress and tree phenology in a tropical dry forest in the lowlands of Costa Rica. Journal of Ecology 72:61-74.

Reich, P.B. & J.P. Lassoie. 1984. Effect of low level O3 exposure on leaf diffusive conductance and water-use efficiency in hybrid poplar. Plant, Cell & Environment 7: 661-668.

Reich, P.B. 1984. Leaf stomatal density and diffusive conductance in three amphistomatous hybrid poplar cultivars. New Phytologist 98:231-239.

Reich, P.B. 1984. Relationships between leaf age, irradiance, leaf conductance, CO2 exchange, and water-use efficiency in hybrid poplar. Photosynthetica 18:445-453.

Reich, P.B. J.P. Lassoie & R.G. Amundson. 1984 Reduction in growth of hybrid poplar following field exposure to low levels of O3 and (or) SO2. Canadian Journal of Botany 62:2835-2841.

1983

Reich, P.B. 1983. Effects of low concentrations of O3 on net photosynthesis, dark respiration, and chlorophyll contents in aging hybrid poplar leaves.  Plant Physiology 73:291-296.

Lassoie, J.P., P.M. Dougherty, P.B. Reich, T.M. Hinckley, C. Metcalf, S. Dina. 1983. Ecophysio-logical investigations of understory eastern red cedar in central Missouri. Ecology 64: 1355-1366.

1982

Reich, P.B., R.G. Amundson, J.P. Lassoie. 1982. Reduction in soybean yield after exposure to ozone and sulfur dioxide using a linear gradient exposure technique. Water, Air & Soil Pollution 17:29-36.

Reich, P.B. & R. Borchert. 1982. Phenology and ecophysiology of the tropical tree, Tabebuia neochrysantha (Bignoniaceae). Ecology 63:294-299.

1980

Reich, P.B., T.M. Hinckley. 1980. Water relations, soil fertility and plant nutrient composition of a pygmy oak ecosystem. Ecology 61:400-416.

Reich, P.B., R.O. Teskey, P.S. Johnson, T.M. Hinckley. 1980. Periodic root and shoot growth in oak. Forest Science 26:590-598.

1979

Frelich, L.E. 1979. Vascular plants of Newport State Park, Wisconsin. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources Research Report 100.