University of Minnesota
College of Food, Agricultural and Natural Resource Sciences
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Forest Ecology Lab


Cornwell, W.K., Westoby, M., Falster, D.S., FitzJohn, R.G., O’Meara, B.C., Pennell, M., McGlinn, D.J., Eastman, J.M., Moles, A.T., Reich, P.B., Tank, D.C., Wright, I.J., Aarssen, L., Beaulieu, J.M., Kooyman, R.M., Leishman, M.R., Miller, E.T., Niinemets, Ü., Oleksyn, J., Ordonez, A., Royer, D.L., Smith, S.A., Stevens, P.F., Warman, L., Wilf, P., Zanne, A.E. 2014. Functional distinctiveness of major plant lineages. (.pdf) Journal of Ecology 102:345-356.  

Fisichelli, N., L. Frelich, P.B. Reich. 2014. Temperate tree expansion into adjacent boreal forest patches facilitated by warmer temperature. (.pdf) Ecography 37:152-161. 

Kern, C.C., R.A. Montgomery, P.B. Reich, T.F. Strong. 2014. Harvest-Created Canopy Gaps Increase Species and Functional Trait Diversity of the Forest Ground-Layer Community.(.pdf) Forest Science

Lau, J.A., R.G. Shaw, P.B. Reich, P. Tiffin. 2014. Indirect effects drive evolutionary responses to global change. (.pdf) New Phytologist 201:335-343.

Lebrija-Trejos, E., S.J. Wright, A. Hernández, P. B. Reich. 2014. Does relatedness matter? Phylogenetic density dependent survival of seedlings in a tropical forest.(.pdf) Ecology

Montgomery, R.A., B.J. Palik, S.B. Borden, P.B. Reich. 2014. New cohort growth and survival in variable retention harvests in a pine ecosystem in Minnesota, U.S.A. Forest Ecology and Management 310:327-335.

Palik, B.J., R.A. Montgomery, P.B. Reich, S. Boyden. 2014. Biomass growth response to spatial pattern of variable retention harvesting in a northern Minnesota pine ecosystem. Ecological Applications 

Peters, E.L., K. Wythers, S. Zhang, J. Bradford P.B. Reich. 2014. Potential climate change impacts on temperate forest ecosytem processes. (pdf) Canadian Journal of Forest Research 43:939-950.

Pietsch, K.A., K. Ogle, J.H.C. Cornelissen, W.K. Cornwell, G. Bönisch, J.M. Craine, B.G. Jackson, J. Kattge, D.A. Peltzer, J. Penuelas,  P.B. Reich,  D.A. Wardle,  J.T. Weedon,  I. J. Wright, A.E. Zanne, C. Wirth. 2014. Global relationship of wood and leaf litter decomposability: The role of functional traits within and across plant organs. Global Ecology and Biogeography  DOI: 10.1111/geb.12172

Reich, P.B. 2014. The worldwide ‘fast-slow’ plant economics spectrum: a traits manifesto. (.pdf)  Journal of Ecology 102:275-301.

Reich, P.B. 2014. Diversity of traits - a functional link to adaptation, community assembly, and ecosystem structure and function.  Strasburger Volume (in press)

Reich, P.B., R. Rich, X. Lu, Y.-P. Wang, J. Oleksyn. 2014. Biogeographic variation in evergreen conifer needle longevity and impacts on boreal forest carbon cycle projections. Proc Natl Acad Sci (in press)

Thakur, M., P.B. Reich, W.C. Eddy, A. Stefanski, R. Rich, S.E. Hobbie, N. Eisenhauer. 2014. Some plants like it warmer: increased growth of three selected invasive plant species in soils with a history of experimental warming. (.pdf) Pedobiologia 57:57-60.

Thakur, M.P., P.B. Reich, N. Fisichelli, A. Stefanski, S. Cesarz, T. Dobies, R.L. Rich, S. Hobbie, N. Eisenhauer. 2014. Nematode community shifts in response to experimental warming and canopy conditions are associated with plant community changes in the temperate-boreal forest ecotone. Oecologia 1-11.

Tobner, C.M., A. Paquette, P.B. Reich, D. Gravel, C. Messier. 2014. Advancing biodiversity – ecosystem functioning science using high-density tree-based experiments over functional diversity gradients. (.pdf) Oecologia 174:609-621.

Whitfeld, TJS, AM Roth, AG Lodge, N Eisenhauer, LE Frelich, PB Reich. 2014. Resident plant diversity and introduced earthworms have contrasting effects on the success of invasive plants.(.pdf) Biological Invasions DOI 10.1007/s10530-014-0657-6

Zanne, A.E., Tank, D.C., Cornwell, W.K., Eastman, J.M., Smith, S.A., FitzJohn, R.G., McGlinn, D.J., O'Meara, B.C., Moles, A.T., Reich, P.B., Royer, D.L., Soltis, D.E., Stevens, P.F., Westoby, M., Wright, I.J., Aarssen, L., Bertin, R.I., Calaminus, A., Govaerts, R., Hemmings, F., Leishman, M.R., Oleksyn, J., Soltis, P.S., Swenson, N.G., Warman, L., Beaulieu J.M. 2014. Three keys to the radiation of angiosperms into freezing environments.(.pdf) Nature 506:89.


Ali, A.A., B.E. Medlyn, K.Y. Crous, P.B. Reich. 2013. A trait-based ecosystem model suggests that long-term responsiveness to rising atmospheric CO2 concentration is greater in slow-growing than fast-growing plants. (.pdf) Functional Ecology 11/1365-2435.12102.

Bentley, L.P., J.C. Stegen, V.M. Savage, D.D. Smith, E.I. von Allmen, J.S. Sperry, P.B. Reich, B.J. Enquist. 2013. An empirical assessment of tree branching networks and implications for plant allometric scaling models (.pdf) Ecology Letters 16:1069-1078.

Brassard, B.W., H.Y.H. Chen, X. Cavard, J. Laganiere, P.B. Reich, Y. Bergeron, D. Pare, Z. Yuan. 2013. Tree species diversity increases fine root productivity through increased soil volume filling. (.pdf) J. Ecology 101(1):210-219.

Cardinale, B.J., K. Gross, K. Fritschie, P. Flombaum, J. Fox, C. Rixen, J. Van Ruijven, P. Reich, M. Scherer-Lorenzen, B.J. Wilsey. 2013. Biodiversity simultaneously enhances the production and stability of community biomass, but the effects are independent. (.pdf)  Ecology

Clark, C.C., D.F.B. Flynn, B.B. Butterfield, P.B. Reich. 2013. Testing the link between functional diversity and ecosystem functioning in a Minnesota grassland. (.pdf) PLosOne

Danz, N.P., L.E. Frelich, P.B. Reich, G.J. Niemi. 2013. Do vegetation boundaries display smooth or abrupt spatial transitions along environmental gradients?  Evidence from the prairie-forest biome boundary of historic Minnesota, USA. (.pdf) J Veg Sci. Doi: 10.1111/jvs.12028

Eisenhauer, N., T. Dobies, S. Cesarz, S.E. Hobbie, R.J. Meyer, K. Worm, P.B. Reich. 2013. Plant diversity effects on soil food webs are stronger than those of elevated CO2 and N deposition in a long-term grassland experiment. (.pdf) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 110:6889-6895.

Farrior, C.E., D. Tilman, R. Dybzinski, P.B. Reich, S.A. Levin, S.W. Pacala. 2013. Resource limitation in a competitive context determines complex plant responses to experimental resource additions. (.pdf) Ecology 94:2505-2517.

Fisichelli, N., L. Frelich, P.B. Reich. 2013. Climate and interrelated tree regeneration drivers across the temperate-boreal transition zone. (.pdf) Landscape Ecology 28:149–159. 

Fisichelli, N., L. Frelich, P.B. Reich, N. Eisenhauer. 2013.  Linking direct and indirect pathways mediating earthworms, deer, and understory composition in Great Lakes forests. (.pdf)  Biol Invasions 15:1057-1066.

Fraser, L.H., H.A. Henry, C.N. Carlyle, S.R. White, C. Beierkuhnlein, J.F. Cahill Jr. B.B. Casperm, E. Cleland, S.L. Collins, et al 2013. Coordinated distributed experiments: An emerging tool for testing global hypotheses in ecology and environmental science. (.pdf) Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 11:147-155.

Gross, K., B.J. Cardinale, J.W. Fox, A. Gonzalez, M. Loreau, H.W. Polley, P.B. Reich, J. van Ruijven. 2013. Species richness and the temporal stability of biomass production: A new analysis of recent biodiversity experiments. (.pdf) American Naturalist 183:1-12.

Isbell, F., P.B. Reich, D. Tilman, S.E. Hobbie, S. Polasky, S. Binder. 2013. Nutrient enrichment, biodiversity loss, and consequent declines in ecosystem productivity. (.pdf) PNAS 110: 11911-11916.

Kern, C.,R. Montgomery, P.B. Reich, T. Strong. 2013. Canopy gap size influences niche partitioning of the ground-layer plant community in a northern temperate forest. (.pdf) J. Plant Ecology 6(1):101-112.

Kikuzawa, K., Y. Onuda, I.J. Wright, P.B. Reich. 2013. The mechanism underlying the global patterns of leaf longevity. (.pdf) Global Ecology Biogeography Article first published online: 29 JAN 2013, DOI: 10.1111/geb.12042.

Montgomery, R.A., B.J. Palik, S.B. Boyden, P.B. Reich. 2013. New cohort growth and survival in variable retention harvests of a pine ecosystem in Minnesota, USA. (.pdf) Forest Ecology and Management 310:327-335.

Mueller, K.E., D.M. Eissenstat, C.W. Muller, J. Oleksyn, P.B. Reich, K.H. Freeman. 2013. What controls the concentration of various aliphatic lipids in soil? (.pdf) Soil Biology and Biochemistry 63:14-17.

Mueller, K.E., S.E. Hobbie, D. Tilman, P.B. Reich. 2013. Effects of plant diversity, N fertilization, and elevated carbon dioxide on grassland soil N cycling in a long-term experiment. (.pdf) Global Change Biology 19:1249-1261.

Mulder, C.,  F.S. Ahrestani, M. Bahn, D.A. Bohan, M. Bonkowski, B.S. Griffiths, R.A. Guicharnaud, J. Kattge, P.H. Krogh, S. Lavorel, O.T. Lewis, G. Mancinelli, S. Naeem, J. Peñuelas, H. Poorter, P.B. Reich, L. Rossi, G.M. Rusch, J. Sardans, I.J. Wright. 2013. Connecting the green and brown worlds: Allometric and stoichiometric predictability of above- and below-ground networks. (.pdf) Advances in Ecological Research 49, 107 pages.

Ollinger, S.V., P.B. Reich, S. Frolking, L.C. Lepine, D.Y. Hollinger, A.D. Richardson. 2013. Nitrogen cycling, forest canopy reflectance, and emergent properties of ecosystems. (.pdf) PNAS 110:E2437

Osnas, J.L.D., J.W. Lichstein, P.B. Reich, S.W. Pacala. 2013. Global leaf trait relationships: Mass, area, and the leaf economics spectrum. (.pdf) Science 340:741-744.

Peters, E.B., K. Wythers, J. Bradford, P.B. Reich. 2013. Influence of disturbance on temperate forest productivity.
(.pdf) Ecosystems 16:95-110.

Peters, E.B., K. Wythers, S. Zhang, J. Bradford, P.B. Reich.  2013. Potential climate change impacts on temperate forest ecosystem processes. (.pdf) Canadian Journal of Forest Research 

Perez-Harguindegay, S. Diaz, E. Garnier, S. Lavorel, H. Poorter, P. Jaureguiberry, et al.  2013. New handbook for standardised measurement of plant functional traits worldwide. (.pdf) Australian Journal of Botany 

Sendall, K. and Reich, P.B. 2013. Variation in leaf and twig CO2 flux as a function of plant size: a comparison of seedlings, saplings, and trees. (.pdf) Tree Physiology doi:10.1093/treephys/tpt048

Verheijen, L.M., V. Brovkin, R. Aerts, G. Bonisch, J.H.C. Cornelissen, J. Kattge, P.B. Reich, I.J. Wright, P.M. Van Bodegom. 2013. Impacts of trait variation through observed trait-climate relationships on performance of the Earth system model: A conceptual analysis. (.pdf) Biogeosciences 10(8):5497-5515.

Westoby, M., P.B. Reich, I.J. Wright. 2013. Understanding ecological variation across species. (.pdf) New Phytologist 199(2): 322-323.

Whitfeld, T., Lodge, A.G., Roth, A.M., Reich, P.B. 2013. Community phylogenetic diversity and abiotic site characteristics influence abundance of the invasive plant Rhamnus cathartica L. Journal of Plant Ecology doi:10.1093/jpe/rtt020

Wright, A., S. Schnitzer, I.A. Dickie, A.R. Gunderson, G.A. Pinter, S.A. Mangan, P.B. Reich. 2013. Complex facilitation and competition in a temperate grassland: loss of plant diversity and elevated CO2 have divergent and opposite effects on oak establishment.(.pdf) Oecologia 171:449-458. DOI 10.1007/s00442-012-2420-y

Wythers, K., P.B. Reich, J.B. Bradford. 2013. Incorporating temperature–sensitive Q10 and foliar respiration acclimation algorithms modify modeled ecosystem responses to global change. (.pdf)  J Geophys Res 118:1-14.

Xiang, S., P.B. Reich, S. Sun, O. Atkin. 2013. Contrasting leaf trait scale relationships in tropical and temperate forest wet forest species. (.pdf) Functional Ecology 27:522-534.

Xu, M.,  Z. He, Y. Deng,  L. Wu, J. D van Nostrand, S.E. Hobbie, P.B. Reich, J. Zhou. 2013. Elevated CO2 influences microbial carbon and nitrogen cycling. (.pdf) BMC Microbiology 13:124.


Boyden, S., R. Montgomery, P.B. Reich, B. Palik. 2012. Seeing the forest for the heterogeneous trees: stand-scale resource distributions emerge from tree-scale structure. (.pdf) Ecol Applications 22(5):1578–1588.

Brzostek, E.R., Blair, J.M., Dukes, J.S., Frey, S.D., Hobbie, S.E., Melillo, J.M., Mitchell, R.J., Pendall, E., Reich, P.B., Shaver, G.R. et al. 2012. The effect of experimental warming and precipitation change on proteolytic enzyme activity: Positive feedbacks to nitrogen availability are not universal. (.pdf) Global Change Biology 18(8):2617-2625.

Cavender-Bares, J., P.B. Reich. 2012. Shocks to the system: Community assembly of the oak savanna in a 40-year fire frequency experiment. (.pdf) Ecology 93(8): S52-S69.

Clark, C.M., D.F.B. Flynn, B.J. Butterfield, P.B. Reich. 2012. Testing the link between functional diversity and ecosystem functioning in a Minnesota grassland experiment. (.pdf) PLoS ONE 7(12):e52821 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0052821

Deng, Y., Z. He, M. Xu, Y. Qin, J.D. Van Nostrand, L. Wu , B.A. Roe, G. Wiley, S.E. Hobbie, P.B. Reich, J. Zhou. 2012. Elevated carbon dioxide alters the structure of soil microbial communities. (.pdf) Applied and Environmental Microbiology 78(8):2991-2995.

Eisenhauer, N.., Reich, P.B. 2012. Above- and belowground inputs both fuel soil food webs. (.pdf) Soil Biology and Biochemistry 45:156-160. doi:10.1016/j.soilbio.2011.10.019

Eisenhauer, N., Fisichelli, N.A., Frelich, L.E., Reich P.B. 2012. Interactive effects of global warming and 'global worming' on the initial establishment of native and exotic herbaceous plant species. (.pdf) Oikos, doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0706.2011.19807x.

Eisenhauer, N., Cesarz, S., Koller, R., Worm, K., Reich, P.B. 2011. Global change below ground: impacts of elevated CO2, nitrogen and summer drought on soil food webs and biodiversity. (.pdf) Global Change Biology 18:435–447, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2011.02555.x.

Eisenhauer, N., P.B. Reich, F. Isbell. 2012. Decomposer diversity and identity influence plant diversity effects on ecosystem functioning.(.pdf) Ecology 93(10): 2227–2240.  

Eisenhauer, N., P.B. Reich, S. Scheu. 2012. Increasing plant diversity effects on productivity with time due to delayed soil biota effects on plants. Basic Applied Ecology

Falster, D.S.*, P.B. Reich*, D.S. Ellsworth, I.J. Wright, M. Westoby, J. Oleksyn, T.D. Lee. 2012. Lifetime return on investment increases with leaf lifespan among 10 Australian woodland species. (.pdf) New Phytologist 193:409–419. Article first published online: 8 NOV 2011 DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2011.03940.x [*first two authors contributed equally to the paper]    

Fisichelli, N., L.E. Frelich, P.B. Reich. 2012. Sapling growth responses to warmer temperatures ‘cooled’ by browse pressure. (.pdf) Global Change Biology, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2012.02785.x  
Frelich, L.E., R.O. Peterson, M. Dovčiak, P.B. Reich, J.A. Vucetich, N. Eisenhauer. 2012. Trophic cascades, invasive species, and body-size hierarchies interactively modulate climate change responses of ecotonal temperate-boreal forest. (.pdf) Phil Trans Roy Soc. 367:2955–2961.

Goll, D.S., V. Brovkin, B.R. Parida, C.H. Reick, J. Kattge, P.B. Reich, P.M. van Bodegom, Ü. Niinemets. 2012. Nutrient limitation reduces land carbon uptake in simulations with a model of combined carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus cycling. (.pdf) Biogeosciences 9:3547–3569.

He, Z., Y. Piceno, Y. Deng, M. Xu, Z. Lu, T. Desantis, G. Andersen, S.E. Hobbie, P.B. Reich, J. Zhou. 2012. The phylogenetic composition and structure of soil microbial communities shifts in response to elevated carbon dioxide. (.pdf)  ISME Journal 6(2):259-272.

Holdsworth, A., L.E. Frelich, P.B. Reich. 2012. Leaf litter disappearance in earthworm-invaded northern hardwood forests: role of tree species and the chemistry and diversity of litter. (.pdf) Ecosystems DOI: 10.1007/s10021-012-9554-y

Johnson, K.A., G. Dana, N.R. Jordan, K..J. Draeger, A. Kapuscinski, L.K. Schmitt Olabisi, PB Reich. 2012. Using Participatory Scenarios to Stimulate Social Learning for Collaborative Sustainable Development.(.pdf) Ecology and Society 17:9.  

Kern, C.C., R.A. Montgomery, P.B. Reich, T.F. Strong.  2012. Canopy gap size influences niche partitioning of the ground-layer plant community in a temperate northern hardwood forest, U.S.A. (.pdf) J Plant Ecology 1–12 doi:10.1093/jpe/rts016.

Kern, C.C., P.B. Reich, R.A. Montgomery, T.F. Strong. 2012. Yellow birch, northern red oak, eastern white pine, and eastern hemlock seedling growth and survival: Do deer and shrubs override canopy gap size effects? (.pdf) Forest Ecology and Management 267:134–143, doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2011.12.002

Koele, N., I. A. Dickie, J. Oleksyn, S. J. Richardson, P. B Reich. 2012. No globally consistent effect of ectomycorrhizal status on foliar traits. (.pdf) New Phytologist 196:845-852. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2012.0429

Moles, A.T., H. Flores-Moreno, S.P. Bonser, D.I.Warton, A. Helm, L. Warman, D.J. Eldridge, E. Jurado, F.A. Hemmings, P.B. Reich, J. Cavender-Bares, E.W. Seabloom, M. M. Mayfield, D. Sheil, J.C. Djietror, P.L. Peri, L. Enrico, M.R. Cabido, S.A. Setterfield, C. E.R. Lehmann, F.J. Thomson. 2012. Invasions: the trail behind, the path ahead, and a test of a disturbing idea. (.pdf) Journal of Ecology 100:116–127, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2745.2011.01915.x.

Mueller, K.E., .DM. Eissenstat, S.E. Hobbie, J. Oleksyn, A.M. Jagodzinski, P.B. Reich, O.A. Chadwick, J. Chorover. 2012. Tree species effects on coupled cycles of carbon, nitrogen, and acidity in mineral soils at a common garden experiment. (.pdf) Biogeochemistry (6 January 2012), pp. 1-14, doi:10.1007/s10533-011-9695-7.

Mueller, K.E., S.E. Hobbie, J. Oleksyn, P.B. Reich, D.M. Eissenstat. 2012. Do evergreen and deciduous tree differ in their effects on soil nitrogen availability. (.pdf) Ecology 93:1463-1472.

Norris, M.D., P.G. Avis, P.B. Reich, S.E. Hobbie. 2012. Positive feedbacks between decomposition and soil nitrogen availability along fertility gradients. Plant and Soil (.pdf) DOI: 10.1007/s11104-012-1449-3

Poorter, H., K. Niklas, P.B. Reich, J. Oleksyn, P. Poot, L. Mommer. 2012. Biomass allocation to leaves, stems and roots: meta-analyses of interspecific variation and environmental control. (.pdf) New Phytologist Tansley Review doi:10.1111/j.1469-8137.2011.03952.x

Reich, P.B. 2012. Key canopy traits drive forest productivity. (.pdf) Proceedings Roy Soc. B. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2011.2270

Reich, P.B., Hobbie, S.E. 2012. Decade-long soil nitrogen constraint on the CO2 fertilization of plant biomass. (.pdf) Nature Climate Change DOI: 10.1038/NCLIMATE1694

Reich, P.B., L. Frelich, R. Voldseth, P. Bakken, E.C. Adair.  2012. Understorey diversity in southern boreal forests is regulated by productivity and its indirect impacts on resource availability and heterogeneity. (.pdf) J Ecology 100:539-545. Article first published online:16 NOV 2011, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2745.2011.01922.x

Reich, P.B., Tilman, D., Isbell, F., Mueller, K., Hobbie, S.E., Flynn, D.F.B., Eisenhauer, N. 2012. Impacts of biodiversity loss escalate through time as redundancy fades. (.pdf) Science 336:589-592. DOI: 10.1126/science.1217909

Reid, J.P., E.C. Adair, S.E. Hobbie, P.B. Reich. 2012. Biodiversity, nitrogen deposition and CO2 affect grassland soil carbon cycling but not storage. (.pdf) Ecosystems 15(4):580-590.

Robakowski, P., Y. Li, P.B. Reich. 2012. Local ecotypic and species range-related adaptation influence photosynthetic temperature optima in deciduous broadleaved trees. (.pdf) Plant Ecology 213:113–125, doi:10.1007/s11258-011-0011-3.

Shan, H., J. Kattge, P.B. Reich, A. Banerjee, F. Schrodt, M. Reichstein. 2012. Gap Filling in the Plant Kingdom---Trait Prediction Using Hierarchical Probabilistic Matrix Factorization. (.pdf)  International Conference on Machine Learning (ICML).

Sperry, J.S., D.D. Smith, V.M. Savage, B.J. Enquist, K.A. McCulloh, P.B. Reich, L.P. Bentley, E.I. von Allmen. 2012. A species-level model for metabolic scaling in trees. I. Exploring boundaries to scaling space within and across species.
(.pdf) Functional Ecology doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2435.2012.02022.x  

Swenson, N.G., B.J. Enquist, J. Pither, A.J. Kerkhoff, B. Boyle, M.D. Weiser, J.J. Elser, W.F. Fagan, J. Forero-Montaña, N. Fyllas, N.J.B. Kraft, J.K. Lake, A.T. Moles, S. Patiño, O.L. Phillips, C.A. Price, P.B. Reich, C.A. Quesada, J.C. Stegen, R. Valencia, I.J. Wright, S.J. Wright, S. Andelman, C.M. Hulshof, P.M. Jørgensen, T.E. Lacher Jr., A. Monteagudo, M. Percy Núñez Vargas, R. Vasquez, K. Nolting. 2012. The biogeography and filtering of woody plant functional diversity in North and South America. (.pdf) Global Ecology Biogeography
Article first published online: 11 NOV 2011 DOI: 10.1111/j.1466-8238.2011.00727.x

Tilman, D., P.B. Reich, F. Isbell. 2012. Biodiversity impacts ecosystem productivity as much as resources, disturbance, or herbivory. (.pdf) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109:10394.

van Ommen Kloeke, A.E.E., J.C. Douma, J.C. Ordoñez, P.B. Reich, P.M. van Bodegom. 2012. Global quantification of contrasting leaf life span strategies for deciduous and evergreen species in response to environmental conditions. (.pdf) Global Ecol Biog 21:224-235. Article first published online: 11 MAY 2011. DOI: 10.1111/j.1466-8238.2011.00667.x  

Von Allmen, E.I.,
J.S. Sperry, D.D. Smith, V.M. Savage, B.J. Enquist, P.B. Reich, L.P. Bentley. A species-level model for metabolic scaling of trees. II. Testing in a ring- and diffuse-porous species. (.pdf) Functional Ecology 26:1066–1076.    

Wang, Y.P.,
X.J. Lu, I.J. Wright, Y.J. Dai, P.J. Rayner, P.B. Reich. 2012. Correlations among leaf traits provide a significant constraint on the estimate of global gross primary production. (.pdf) Geophysical Res Lett 39: L19405, doi:10.1029/2012GL05346

Wright, A., S.A. Schnitzer, I.A. Dickie, A.R. Gunderson, G.A. Pinter, S.A. Mangan, P.B. Reich. 2012. Complex facilitation and competition in a temperate grassland: loss of plant diversity and elevated CO2 have divergent and opposite effects on oak establishment. (.pdf) Oecologia DOI 10.1007/s00442-012-2420-y

Wyka, T.P., J. Oleksyn, R. Żytkowiak, P. Karolewski, A.M. Jagodziński, P.B. Reich. 2012. Responses of leaf structure and photosynthetic properties to intra-canopy light gradients: a common garden test with four angiosperm and seven gymnosperm tree species. (.pdf) Oecologia DOI 10.1007/s00442-012-2279-y.

Zhang, Y., H.Y.H. Chen, P.B. Reich. 2012. Forest productivity increases with evenness, species richness and trait variation: a global meta-analysis. (.pdf) Journal of Ecology doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2745.2011.01944.x


Adair, E.C., P.B. Reich, J.J. Trost, S.E. Hobbie. 2011. Elevated CO2 stimulates grassland soil respiration by increasing C inputs rather than by enhancing soil moisture. (.pdf) Global Change Biology: First published online : 28 JUL 2011, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2011.02484.x

Antoninka, A., P.B. Reich, N.C. Johnson. Seven years of carbon dioxide enrichment, nitrogen fertilization and plant diversity influence arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in a grassland ecosystem. (.pdf) New Phytologist, first published online: 8 June 2011doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2011.03776.x

Carlson, D., P.B. Reich, L.E. Frelich. 2011. Fine-scale heterogeneity in overstory composition contributes to heterogeneity of wildfire severity in southern boreal forest. (.pdf) J Forest Research 16:203-214, doi:10.1007/s10310-011-0251-z.

Danz, N.P., P.B. Reich, L.E. Frelich, G.J. Niemi. 2011. Vegetation controls vary across space and spatial scale in a historic grassland-forest biome boundary. (.pdf) Ecography 34:402-414, doi:10.1111/j.1600-0587.2010.06561.x.

Dybzinski, R., C. Farrior, A. Wolf, P.B. Reich, S.W. Pacala. 2011. Evolutionarily stable strategy carbon allocation to foliage, wood, and fine roots in trees competing for light and nitrogen: an analytically-tractable, individual-based model and quantitative comparisons to data. (.pdf) American Naturalist 177:153-166, doi:10.1086/657992.

Eisenhauer, N., J. Schlaghamerský, P.B. Reich, L.E. Frelich. 2011. The wave towards a new steady state: effects of earthworm invasion on soil microbial functions. (.pdf) Biological Invasions 13:2191-2196. First published online July 2011, DOI 10.1007/s10530-011-0053-4

Falster, D.S., P.B. Reich, D.S. Ellsworth, I.J. Wright, M. Westoby, J. Oleksyn, T.D. Lee. 2011. Life-time return on investment increases with leaf life-span among 10 Australian woodland species. (.pdf) New Phytologist 193(2):409–419. Article first published online: 8 NOV 2011 DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2011.03940.x

Goebel, M., S.E. Hobbie, B. Bulaj, M. Zadworny, D.D. Archibold, J. Oleksyn, P.B. Reich, D.M. Eissenstat. 2011. Decomposition of the finest root branching orders: Unexpected carbon and nutrient dynamics belowground. (.pdf) Ecological Monographs 81:89-102, doi:10.1890/09-2390.1.

Han, W., J. Fang, F.I. Woodward, P.B. Reich, Z. Wang. 2011. Biogeography and variability of eleven mineral elements in plant leaves across gradients of climate, soil, and plant functional type in China. (.pdf) Ecology Letters 14:788-796. Article first published online: 22 JUN 2011, doi:10.1111/j.1461-0248.2011.01641.x

Hector, A., T. Bell, Y. Hautier, F. Isbell, M. Ke´ry, P.B. Reich, J. van Ruijven, B. Schmid. 2011. BUGS in the analysis of biodiversity experiments: Species richness and composition are of similar importance for grassland productivity. (.pdf) PLoS ONE 6(3):e17434, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0017434.

Isbell, F., V. Colgano, A. Hector, J. Connelly, W.S. Harpole, P.B. Reich, M. Scherer-Lorenzen, B. Schmid, D. Tilman, J. van Ruijven, A. Weigelt, B.J. Wilsey, E.S. Zavaleta, M. Loreau. 2011. High plant diversity is needed to maintain ecosystem services. (.pdf) Nature 477:199–202, doi:10.1038/nature10282. Published online 10 August 2011

Kattge, J. et al. 2011. TRY - a global database of plant traits. (.pdf) Global Change Biology 17:2905-2935, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2011.02451.x First published online: 21 June 2011

Kueffer, C., Ü. Niinemets, R.E. Drenovsky, J. Kattge, P. Milberg, H. Poorter, P.B. Reich, C. Werner, M. Westoby, I.J. Wright. 2011. Fame, glory and neglect in meta-analyses.(.pdf) Trends Ecology and Evolution 26:4930, doi:10.1016/j.tree.2011.07.007.

Lee, T.D., S.H. Barrott, P.B. Reich. 2011. Photosynthetic responses of 13 grassland species across 11 years of free-air CO2 enrichment is modest, consistent and independent of N supply. (.pdf) Global Change Biology 17:2893-2904, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2011.02435.x. Article first published online: 2 June 2011.

Liu, Y., P.B. Reich, G. Li, S. Sun. 2011. Shifting phenology and abundance under experimental warming alters trophic relationships and plant reproductive capacity. (.pdf) Ecology 92:1201-1207, doi:10.1890/10-2060.1

Mangan, M.E., C. Sheaffer, D.L. Wyse, N.J. Ehlke, P.B. Reich. 2011. Native perennial grassland species for bioenergy: establishment and biomass productivity. (.pdf) Agronomy Journal 103:509-519, doi:10.2134/agronj2010.0360.

Milla, R., P.B. Reich. 2011. Multi-trait interactions, not phylogeny, fine-tune leaf size reduction with increasing altitude. (.pdf) Annals of Botany 107:455–465, doi:10.1093/aob/mcq261.

Pelc, B., R.A. Montgomery, P.B. Reich. 2011. Frequency and timing of stem removal influence Corylus americana resprout vigor in oak savanna. (.pdf) Forest Ecology and Management 261:136-142, doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2010.09.043.

Reich, P.B. 2011. Taking stock of forest carbon. (.pdf) Nature Climate Change 1:346-347, doi:10.1038/nclimate1233.

Schnitzer, S.A., J.N. Klironomos, J. Hille Ris Lambers, L.L. Kinkel, P.B. Reich, K. Xiao, M.C. Rillig, R.M. Callaway. 2011. Soil microbes drive the classic plant diversity – productivity pattern. (.pdf) Ecology 92:296-303, doi:10.1890/10-0773.1.

Swenson, N.G., B.J. Enquist, J. Pither, A.J. Kerkhoff, B. Boyle, M.D. Weiser, J.J. Elser, W.F. Fagan, J. Forero-Montaña, N. Fyllas, N.J.B. Kraft, J.K. Lake, A.T. Moles, S. Patiño, O.L. Phillips, C.A. Price, P.B. Reich, C.A. Quesada, J.C. Stegen, R. Valencia, IJ Wright, S.J. Wright, S. Andelman, C.M. Hulshof, P.M. Jørgensen, T.E. Lacher Jr., A. Monteagudo, M. Percy Núñez Vargas, R. Vasquez, K. Nolting. 2011. The biogeography and filtering of woody plant functional diversity in North and South America. (.pdf) Global Ecology and Biogeography, Article first published online: 11 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1466-8238.2011.00727.x

van Ommen Kloeke A.E.E., J.C. Douma, J.C. Ordoñez, P.B. Reich, P.M. van Bodegom. 2011. Global quantification of contrasting leaf life span strategies for deciduous and evergreen species in response to environmental conditions. (.pdf) Global Ecology and Biogeography, Article first published online: 11 May 2011. DOI: 10.1111/j.1466-8238.2011.00667.x

Wu, X., E.J. Duffy, P.B. Reich, S. Sun. 2011. A brown-world cascade in the dung decomposer food web of an alpine meadow: Effects of predator interactions and warming. Ecological Monographs 81:313-328, doi:10.1890/10-0808.1.

Yuan, Z.Y., H.Y. Chen, P.B. Reich. 2011. Fine root nitrogen and phosphorus stoichiometry at the global scale. Nature Communications 2:344, doi:10.1038/ncomms1346


Crous K.Y., P.B. Reich, M.D. Hunter, D.S. Ellsworth. 2010. Maintenance of leaf N controls the CO2 response of grassland species exposed to nine years of free-air CO2 enrichment. (.pdf) Global Change Biology 16:2076–2088.

Fissore C., J. Espeleta, E. Nater, S.E. Hobbie, P.B. Reich. 2010. Limited potential for terrestrial carbon sequestration to offset CO2 emissions in the upper midwestern US. (.pdf) Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment doi: 10.1890/090059

Frelich, L.E, P.B. Reich. 2010. Will environmental changes reinforce the impact of global warming on the prairie-forest border of central North America? (.pdf) Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 8(7):371–378.

He J.-S., Wang X., Schmid B., Flynn D.F.B., Li X.F., Reich P.B., Fang J. 2010. Taxonomic identity, phylogeny, climate and soil fertility as drivers of leaf traits across Chinese grassland biomes. (.pdf) Journal of Plant Research 123(4):551-61.

He, Z., M. Xu, Y. Deng, S. Kang, L. Kellogg, L. Wu, J. D. Van Nostrand, S.E. Hobbie, P.B. Reich, J. Zhou 2010. Metagenomic analysis reveals a marked divergence in the structure of belowground microbial communities at elevated CO2. (.pdf) Ecology Letters 13: 564–575.

Hobbie, S.E., D. Eissenstat, J. Oleksyn, P.B. Reich. 2010. Fine root decomposition rates do not mirror those of leaf litter among temperate tree species. (.pdf) Oecologia 162:505–513.

Larson, E.R., K.F. Kipfmueller, C.M. Hale, L.E. Frelich, P.B. Reich 2010. Tree rings detect earthworm invasions and their effects in northern hardwood forests. (.pdf) Biological Invasions DOI 10.1007/s10530-009-9523-3

Lau, J.A., R.G. Shaw, P.B. Reich, P. Tiffin. 2010. Species interactions in a changing environment: elevated CO2 alters the ecological and potential evolutionary consequences of competition. Evolutionary Ecology Research 12.

McCulloh, K., J.S. Sperry, B. Lachenbruch, F.C. Meinzer, P.B. Reich, S. Voelker. 2010. Moving water well: comparing hydraulic efficiency in twigs and trunks of coniferous, ring-porous, and diffuse-porous saplings from temperate and tropical forests. (.pdf) New Phytologist 186(2):439-50. (finalist for New Phytologist Tansley Medal for Excellence in Plant Science)

Montgomery, R.A., P.B. Reich, B.J. Palik. 2010. Untangling positive and negative biotic interactions: views from above and below ground in a forest ecosystem. (.pdf) Ecology 91(12):3641-55.

Peng, Y., K.J. Niklas, P.B. Reich, S. Sun. 2010. Ontogenetic shift in the scaling of dark respiration with whole-plant mass in seven shrub species. (.pdf) Functional Ecology 24:502–512.

Pierce, A.M., P.B. Reich. 2010. The effects of eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana) invasion and removal on a dry bluff prairie ecosystem. (.pdf) Biological Invasions 12:241–252.

Reich, P.B. 2010. Permafrost and wetland carbon stocks--response. (.pdf) Science 30:1177.

Reich, P.B. 2010. Climate change. The carbon dioxide exchange. (.pdf) Science 327:774-775.

Reich P.B., J. Oleksyn, I.J. Wright, K.J. Niklas, L. Hedin, J.J. Elser. 2010. Evidence of a general 2/3-power law of scaling of leaf nitrogen to phosphorus among major plant groups and biomes. (.pdf) Proc Royal Soc B 277(1683):877-883.

Rich, R., Frelich, L.., Reich, P., Bauer, M. 2010. Detecting wind-disturbance severity and canopy heterogeneity in boreal forest by coupling high-spatial resolution satellite imagery and field data. (.pdf) Remote Sensing of Environment 114:299–308.

Savage, V.M., Bentley, L.P., Enquist, B.J., Sperry, J.S., Smight, D.D., Riech, P.B., von Allmen, E.I. 2010. Hydraulic trade-offs and space filling enable better predictions of vascular structure and function in plants. (.pdf) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 107:22722-22727.

Schmitt Olabisi, L.K., A.R. Kapuscinski, K. Johnson, P.B. Reich, B. Stenquist, K.J. Draeger. 2010. Using Scenario Visioning and Participatory System Dynamics Modeling to Investigate the Future: Lessons from Minnesota 2050.(.pdf)  Sustainability 2:2686-2706.

Trocha, L., J. Mucha, J., D.M. Eissenstat, P.B. Reich, J. Oleksyn. 2010. Ectomycorrhizal identity determines respiration and concentrations of nitrogen and nonstructural carbohydrates in root tips: a test using Pinus sylvestris and Quercus robur saplings. (.pdf) Tree physiology 30(5):648-54.

Willis, C.G., J. Cavender-Bares, M. Halina, C. Lehman, P.B. Reich, A. Keen, S. McCarthy. 2010. Phylogenetic community structure in Minnesota oak savanna is influenced by spatial extent and environmental variation. (.pdf) Ecography 33:565-577.

Wright, S.J., K. Kitajima, N.J.B. Kraft, P.B. Reich, I J. Wright, D.E. Bunker, R. Condit, J. Dalling, S. Davies, S. Díaz, B.M.J. Engelbrecht, K.E. Harms, S.P. Hubbell, C.O. Marks, M.C. Ruiz-Jaen, C.M. Salvador, R. Valencia, A.E. Zanne. 2010. Functional traits and the growth-mortality tradeoff in tropical trees. (.pdf) Ecology doi: 10.1890/09-2335


Adair, E.C., Reich P.B., Hobbie S.E., Knops J.M.H. 2009. Interactive effects of time, CO2, N, and diversity on total belowground carbon allocation and ecosystem carbon storage in a grassland community. (.pdf) Ecosystems 12:1037-152.

Boyden, S.B., P.B. Reich, K. J. Puettmann, T.R. Baker. 2009. Effects of density and ontogeny on size and growth ranks of three competing tree species. (.pdf) Journal of Ecology 97:277-288.

Cernusak, L.A., Tcherkez G., Keitel C., Cornwell W.K., Santiago L.S., Knohl A., Barbour M.G., Williams D.G., Reich P.B., Ellsworth D.S., Dawson T.E., Griffiths H.G., Farquhar G.D., Wright I.J., Westoby M. 2009. Why are non-photosynthetic tissues generally 13C enriched compared to leaves in C3 plants? Review and synthesis of current hypotheses. (.pdf) Functional Plant Biology 36:199-213.

Chung, H., Zak D., Reich P.B. 2009. Microbial assimilation of new photosynthate is altered by plant species richness and nitrogen deposition. (.pdf) Biogeochemistry 94:233-242.

Craine, J.M., Elmore A.J., Aidar M.P.M., Bustamante M., Dawson T.E., Hobbie E.A., Kahmen A., Mack M.C., McLauchlan K.K., Michelsen A., Nardoto G.B., Pardo L.H., Peñuelas J., Reich P.B., Schuur E.A.G., Stock W.D., Templer P.H., Virginia R.A.,Welker J.M., Wright I.J. 2009. Global patterns of foliar nitrogen isotopes and their relationships with climate, mycorrhizal fungi, foliar nutrient concentrations, and nitrogen availability. (.pdf) New Phytologist 183(4):980-992.

Dauer, J.M., Withington J.M., Oleksyn J., Chorover J., Chadwick, O.A., Reich P.B., Eissenstat D.M. 2009. A scanner-based approach to soil profile-wall mapping of root distribution. (.pdf) Dendrobiology 62:35-40

Dickie, I.A., B.T.M. Dentinger, P.G. Avis, D.J. McLaughlin, P.B. Reich. 2009. Ectomycorrhizal fungal communities of oak savanna are distinct from forest communities. (.pdf) Mycologia 101(4):473–483. DOI: 10.3852/08-178

Dijkstra, F.A., West J.B., Hobbie S.E., Reich P.B. 2009. Antagonistic effects of species on C respiration and net N mineralization in soils from mixed coniferous plantations. (.pdf) For Ecol Management 257:1112-1118.

Frelich, L.E., P.B. Reich. 2009. Wilderness conservation in an era of global warming and invasive species: a case study from Minnesota’s Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness. (.pdf) Natural Areas Journal 29(4):385-393.

Galatowitsch, S., L. Frelich, and L. Phillips-Mao. 2009. Regional climate change adaptation strategies for biodiversity conservation in a midcontinental region of North America. (.pdf) Biological Conservation 142:2012-2022.

HilleRisLambers, J., W.S. Harpole, S.A. Schnitzer, D. Tilman, P.B. Reich. 2009. CO2, nitrogen, and diversity differentially affect seed production of prairie plants. (.pdf) Ecology 90(7):1810-1820.

Milla, R., Gimenez-Benavides, L., Escudero, A., Reich, P.B. 2009. Intra- and interspecific performance in growth and reproduction increase with altitude: a case study with two Saxifraga species from northern Spain. (.pdf) Functional Ecology 23(1):111-118.

Norris, M.D., P.B. Reich. 2009. Modest enhancement of nitrogen conservation via retranslocation in response to gradients in N supply and leaf N status. (.pdf) Plant and Soil 316:193-204.

Olabisi, L.S., Reich P.B., Johnson K.A., Kapuscinski A.R., Su S.H., Wilson E.J. 2009. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions for climate stabilization: framing regional options. (.pdf) Environmental Science & Technology 43(6):1696-703.

Ordoñez, J.C., P.M. van Bodegom, J-P.M. Witte, I.J. Wright, P.B. Reich, R. Aerts. 2009. A global study of relationships between leaf traits, climate and soil measures of nutrient fertility. (.pdf) Global Ecology and Biogeography 18(2):137-149.

Reich, P.B. 2009. Elevated CO2 reduces losses of plant diversity caused by nitrogen deposition. (.pdf) Science 326:1399-1402.

Reich, P.B. 2009. Accelerating a Silvicultural Metamorphosis? Review of “A Critique of Silviculture: Managing for Complexity” by Puettmann K.J., Messier C., & Coates K.D. BioScience 59:807-809.

Reich, P.B., J. Oleksyn, I.J. Wright. 2009. Leaf phosphorus influences the photosynthesis-nitrogen relation: a cross-biome analysis of 314 species. (.pdf) Oecologia 160:207-212.

Reich, P.B., Falster D.S., Ellsworth D.S., Wright I.J., Westoby M., Oleksyn J., Lee T.D. 2009. Controls on declining carbon balance with leaf age among 10 woody species in Australian woodland: do leaves have zero net carbon balances when they die? (.pdf) New Phytologist 183:153-166.

Souto, C.P., A.C. Premoli, P.B. Reich. 2009. Leaf trait variation in Embothrium coccineum (Proteaceae) is shaped by complex Patagonian physiographic gradients. (.pdf) Revista Chilena de Historia Natural 82:209-222.

Tjoelker, M.G., J. Oleksyn, G. Lorenc-Plucinska & Reich P.B. 2009. Acclimation of respiratory temperature responses in northern and southern populations of Pinus banksiana. (.pdf) New Phytologist 181:218-22.

Tobin, M., Reich P.B. 2009. Comparing Indices of Understory Light Availability Between Hemlock and Hardwood Forest Patches. (.pdf) Can J Forest Research 39:1949-1957.


Anderson, J., B. Beduhn, D. Current, J. Espeleta, C. Fissore, B. Gangeness, J. Harting, S. Hobbie, E. Nater, P. Reich. 2008. The Potential for Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration in Minnesota. A Report to the Department of Natural Resources from the Minnesota Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration Initiative. 74 pp.

Castro, J., P.B. Reich, A. Sanchez-Miranda, J.D. Guerrero. 2008. Evidence that the negative relationship between seed mass and RGR is not a physiological effect but a trait linked to species identity: a within family analysis in Scots pine. (.pdf) Tree Physiology 28:1077-1082.

Cornwell, W.K., Cornelissen J.H.C., Amatangelo K., Dorrepaal E., Eviner V.T., Godoy O., Hobbie S.E., Hoorens B., Kurokawa H., Perez-Harguindeguy N., Quested H.M., Santiago L.S., Wardle D.A., Wright I.J., Aerts R., Allison S., Van Bodegom P.M., Brovkin V., Chatain A., Callaghan T., Díaz S., Garnier E., Gurvich D.E., Kazakou E., Klein J.A., Read J., Reich P.B., Soudzilovskaia N.A., Vaieretti M.V., Westoby M. 2008. Plant species traits are the predominant control on litter decomposition rates within biomes worldwide. (.pdf) Ecology Letters 11:1065-1071.

Domke, G.M. A.R. Ek, D.R. Becker, J.F. Espeleta, A.W. D’Amato, P.B. Reich, S. Suh, M.A. Kilgore, D.A. Current, H.M. Hoganson, T.E. Burk, C.R. Blinn. 2008. Assessment of Carbon Flows Associated with Forest Management and Biomass Procurement for the Laskin Biomass Facility. Staff Paper Series No. 198, Department of Forest Resources, University of Minnesota. 31pp.

Hale, C., L.E. Frelich, P.B. Reich, J. Pastor. 2008. Exotic earthworm effects on hardwood forest floor, soils and native plants: a mesocosm study. (.pdf) Oecologia 155(3):509-518.

Holdsworth, A.R., Frelich L.E., Reich P.B. 2008. Litter decomposition in earthworm-invaded northern hardwood forests: Role of invasion degree and litter chemistry. (.pdf) Ecoscience 15:536-544.

Knight, K., J. Oleksyn, A.M. Jagodzinski, P.B. Reich, M. Kasprowicz. 2008. Overstorey tree species regulate colonization by native and exotic plants: a source of positive relationships between understorey diversity and invasibility. (.pdf) Diversity and Distributions 14:666-675.

Lau, J.A., J. Strengbom, L.R. Stone, P.B. Reich, P. Tiffin. 2008. Direct and indirect effects of CO2, nitrogen, and community diversity on plant–enemy interactions. (.pdf) Ecology 89:226–236.

Lau, J.A., Peiffer J., Reich P.B., Tiffin P. 2008. Transgenerational effects of global environmental change: long-term CO2 and nitrogen treatments influence offspring growth response to elevated CO2. (.pdf) Oecologia 158:141-150.

Lusk, C.*, P.B. Reich*, R. Montgomery, D. Ackerly, J. Cavender-Bares. 2008. Why are evergreens so contrary about shade? (.pdf) Trends Ecology Evolution 23(6):299-303. [first two authors contributed equally to the paper]

Makarieva, A.M., V.G. Gorshkov, B.-L. Li, S. L. Chown, P.B. Reich, V.M. Gavrilove. 2008. Mean mass-specific metabolic rates are strikingly similar across life’s major domains: Evidence for life’s metabolic optimum. (.pdf) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 105:16994–16999.

McMurtrie, R., R.J. Norby, B.E. Medlyn, R.C. Dewar, D.A. Pepper, P.B. Reich, C.V.M. Barton. 2008. Why is plant-growth response to elevated CO2 amplified when water is limiting but reduced when nitrogen is limiting? A growth-optimisation hypothesis. (.pdf) Functional Plant Biology 35:521-534.

Milla R., P.B. Reich, Ü. Niinemets, P. Castro-Díez. 2008. Environmental and developmental controls on specific leaf area are little modified by leaf allometry. (.pdf) Functional Ecology 22(3):565–576.

Ollinger, S., A. Richardson, M. Martin, D. Hollinger, S Frolking, P. Reich, L. Plourde, G. Katul, J. Munger, R. Orend, M.-L. Smith, K. Paw U, P. Bolstad, B. Cook, M. Day, T. Martin, R. Monson, H. Schmid. 2008. Canopy nitrogen, carbon assimilation, and albedo in temperate and boreal forests: Functional relations and potential climate feedbacks. (.pdf) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 105(49):19336-41.

Peterson, D., P.B. Reich. 2008. Fire frequency and tree canopy structure influence plant species diversity in a forest-grassland ecotone. (.pdf) Plant Ecology 194:5-16.

Przybył, K., Karolewski , P., Oleksyn, J., Labędzki, A., Reich, P.B. 2008. Fungal diversity of Norway spruce litter: effects of site conditions and premature leaf fall caused by bark beetle outbreak. (.pdf) Microbial Ecology 56:332-340.

Reich, P.B., E. Nater, S.E. Hobbie, J. Espeleta, C. Fissore, L. Olabisi, A. Ek. 2008. Comments on the Minnnesota Climate Change Advisory Group Recommendations. Appendix L, Compilation of Public Comments on Minnesota Climate Change Advisory Group Final Report, May 1, 2008, Minnesota Department of Commerce. 13 pp.

Reich, P.B., J. Oleksyn. 2008. Climate warming will reduce growth and survival of Scots pine except in the far north. (.pdf) Ecology Letters 11(6):588-597.

Reich, P.B., M.G. Tjoelker, K.S. Pregitzer, I.J. Wright, J. Oleksyn, J.L. Machado. 2008b. Scaling of Respiration to Nitrogen in Leaves, Stems, and Roots of Higher Land Plant.(.pdf) Ecology Letters 173(1):110-120.

Rodríguez-Calcerrada J., J.A. Pardos, L. Gil, P.B. Reich, I. Aranda. 2008. Light response in seedlings of a temperate (Quercus petraea) and a sub-Mediterranean species (Quercus pyrenaica): contrasting ecological strategies as potential keys to regeneration performance in mixed marginal populations. Plant Ecology 195(2):273-285.

Rodríguez-Calcerrada J., P.B. Reich, E. Rosenqvist, J.A. Pardos, F.J. Cano, I. Aranda. 2008. Leaf physiological versus morphological acclimation to high-light exposure at different stages of foliar development in oak. Tree Physiology 28:761-771.

Schnitzer, S.A., R.A. Londre, Klironomos, P.B. Reich. 2008. Biomass and toxicity responses of poison ivy (Toxicodendron radicans) to elevated atmospheric CO2: Comment. (.pdf) Ecology 89(2):581-585.

Strengbom, J., Reich P.B., Ritchie M.E. 2008. High plant species diversity indirectly mitigates CO2- and N-induced effects on grasshopper growth. (.pdf) Acta Oecologia 34:194-201.

Tjoelker, M.G., J. Oleksyn, P.B. Reich, R. Żytkowiak. 2008. Coupling of respiration, nitrogen, and sugars underlies convergent temperature acclimation in Pinus banksiana across wide-ranging sites and populations. (.pdf) Global Change Biology 14:782-797.

Tjoelker, M.G., Oleksyn, J., Lorenc-Plucinska, G., Reich, P.B. 2008. Acclimation of respiratory temperature responses in northern and southern populations of Pinus banksiana. (.pdf) New Phytologist 181:218–229.


Chapman, K., P.B. Reich. 2007. Land use and habitat gradients determine bird community diversity and abundance in suburban, rural, and reserve landscapes of Minnesota, USA. (.pdf) Biological Conservation 135:543-557.

Chung, H., D. Zak, P.B. Reich, D.S. Ellsworth. 2007. Plant species richness, elevated CO2, and atmospheric N deposition alter soil microbial community composition and function. (.pdf) Global Change Biology 13:980–989.

Dauer, J.M., J. Chorover, O.A. Chadwick, J. Oleksyn, M.G. Tjoelker, S.E. Hobbie, P.B. Reich, D.M. Eissenstat. 2007. Controls over leaf and litter calcium concentrations among temperate trees. (.pdf) Biogeochemistry 86:175-187.

Davis, M., Reich P.B., Knoll M.B.J., Dooley L., Hundtoft M., Attleson I. 2007. Elevated Atmospheric CO2: A Nurse Plant Substitute for Oak Seedlings Establishing in Old Fields. (.pdf) Global Change Biology 13:2308-2316.

Dickie, I.A., R.A. Montgomery, P.B. Reich, S.A. Schnitzer. 2007. Physiological and phenological responses of oak seedlings to oak forest soil in the absence of trees. (.pdf) Tree Physiology 27:133-140.

Dickie, I.A., S.A. Schnitzer, P.B. Reich, S. Hobbie. 2007. Is oak establishment in old-fields and savanna openings context dependent?(.pdf) Journal of Ecology 95:309-320.

Dijkstra, F.A., J.B. West, S.E. Hobbie, P.B. Reich, J. Trost. 2007. Plant diversity, CO2 and N influence inorganic and organic N leaching in grasslands. (.pdf) Ecology 88(2):490–500.

Fargione, J.E., D. Tilman, R. Dybzinski, J. HilleRisLambers, C. Clark, W.S. Harpole, J.M.H. Knops, P.B. Reich, M. Loreau. 2007. From selection to complementarity: shifts in the causes of biodiversity productivity relationships in a long-term biodiversity experiment.(.pdf) Proc Royal Soc B: Biological Science 274:871-876.

Hobbie, S.E., M. Ogdahl, J. Chorover, O.A. Chadwick, J. Oleksyn, R. Zytkoviak, P.B. Reich. 2007. Tree species effects on soil organic matter dynamics: the role of soil cation composition. (.pdf) Ecosystems 10:999-1018.

Holdsworth, A.R., L.E. Frelich, P.B. Reich. 2007. Regional extent of an ecosystem engineer: earthworm invasion in northern hardwood forests. (.pdf) Ecological Applications 17:1666–1677.

Holdsworth, A.R., L.E. Frelich, P.B. Reich. 2007. Effects of earthworm invasion on plant species richness in northern hardwood forests. (.pdf) Conservation Biology 21(4):997-1008.

Knops, H.M.K., S. Naeem, P.B. Reich. 2007. The impact of elevated CO2, increased nitrogen availability and biodiversity on plant tissue quality and decomposition. (.pdf) Global Change Biology 13:1960-1971.

Knight, K.S., J. Kurylo , T. Endress, R. Stewart , P.B. Reich. 2007. Ecology and ecosystem impacts of Rhamnus cathartica: A Review. (.pdf) Biological Invasions 9(8):925-937.

Lau, J., R. Shaw, P.B. Reich, F.H. Shaw, P. Tiffin. 2007. Strong ecological but weak evolutionary effects of CO2 on a recombinant inbred population of Arabidopsis thaliana. (.pdf) New Phytologist 175:351-362.

Milla, R., P.B. Reich. 2007. The scaling of leaf area and mass: the cost of light interception increases with leaf size. (.pdf) Proc. Royal Society B 274:2109-2114.

Niklas, K.J., E.D. Cobb, U. Niinemets, P.B. Reich, A. Sellin, B. Shipley, I.J. Wright. 2007. ‘‘Diminishing returns’’ in the scaling of functional leaf traits across and within species groups. (.pdf) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 104:8891-8896.

Novotny, A., J.D. Schade, S.E. Hobbie, A.D. Kay, M. Kyle, P. B. Reich, J.J. Elser. 2007. Stoichiometric response to nitrogen-fixing and non-fixing dicots to manipulations of CO2, nitrogen, and diversity. (.pdf) Oecologia 151:687-696.

Oleksyn, J., B.D. Kloeppel, S. Lukasiewicz, P. Karolewski, P.B. Reich. 2007. Ecophysiology of Aesculus hippocastanum in degraded and restored urban sites. (.pdf) Polish Journal of Ecology 55:245-260.

Peterson, D, P.B. Reich, K. Wrage, D. Wedin. 2007. Plant functional group responses to fire frequency and tree canopy cover gradients in oak savannas and woodlands. (.pdf) Journal of Vegetation Science 18:3-12.

Potvin, C., F.S. Chapin, A. Gonzalez, P. Leadley, P. Reich, J. Roy. 2007. Plant biodiversity and responses to elevated carbon dioxide. In: Terrestrial Ecosystems in a Changing World. pp. 125-134, Canadell J.G., Pataki D., Pitelka L. (eds.) The IGBP Series, Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, 336 pp.

Reich, P.B., M.G. Tjoelker, J.L. Machado, J. Oleksyn. 2007. Biological Scaling: Does the Exception Prove the Rule? (Reply). (.pdf) Nature 445(7127):E10-E11.

Reich, P.B., I.J. Wright, C.H. Lusk. 2007. Predicting leaf functional traits from simple plant and climate attributes using the GLOPNET global data set. (.pdf) Ecological Applications 17:1982-1988.

Rich, R.L., L.E. Frelich, P.B. Reich. 2007. Wind-throw mortality in the southern boreal forest: effects of species, diameter and stand age. (.pdf) Journal of Ecology 95:1261-1273.

Tilman, D., P.B. Reich, J.H.M. Knops. 2007. Diversity and stability in plant communities (Reply). Nature 446:E6-E8

Trocha, L., J. Oleksyn, P.B. Reich. 2007. Living on the edge: Ecology of an incipient Betula-fungal community growing on brick walls. (.pdf) Trees 21:239-247.

For publications prior to 2007, please contact to request a pdf version of the paper.


Dickie, I.A., J. Oleksyn, P.B. Reich, P. Karolewski, R. Zytkowiak, E. Turzanska, A.M. Jagodzinski. 2006. Soil modification by different tree species influences the extent of seedling ectomycorrhizal infection. Mycorrhiza 16:73-79.

Dijkstra, F.A., K. Wrage, S.E. Hobbie, P.B. Reich. 2006. Tree Patches Show Greater N Losses but Maintain Higher Soil N Availability than Grassland Patches in a Frequently Burned Oak Savanna. Ecosystems 9:441-452.

Dijkstra, F, S Hobbie, P Reich. 2006. Soil processes affected by 16 grassland species grown under different environmental conditions. Soil Science Society of America Journal 70:770-777.

Frelich, L.E., C.M. Hale, S. Scheu, A. Holdsworth, L. Heneghan, P.J. Bohlen, and P.B. Reich. 2006. Earthworm invasion into previously earthworm-free temperate and boreal forests. Biological invasions 8:1235-1245.

Hale, C.M., L.E. Frelich, P.B. Reich. 2006. Changes in Hardwood Forest Understory Plant Communities in Response to European Earthworm Invasions. Ecology 87(7):1637-1649.

Hobbie, S.E., P.B. Reich, J. Oleksyn, M. Ogdahl, R. Zytkowiak, C. Hale, P. Karolewski. 2006. Tree species effects on decomposition and forest floor dynamics in a common garden. Ecology 87(9):2288-2297.

Machado, J.L., P.B. Reich. 2006. Dark respiration rate increases with plant size in saplings of three temperate tree species despite decreasing tissue nitrogen and nonstructural carbohydrates. Tree Physiology 26:915-923.

Reich, P.B., M.G. Tjoelker, J.L. Machado J. Oleksyn. 2006. Universal Scaling of Respiratory Metabolism, Size, and Nitrogen in Plants. Nature 435:457-461.

Reich, P.B., S.E. Hobbie, T. Lee, D.S. Ellsworth, J.B. West, D. Tilman, J.M.H. Knops, S. Naeem, J. Trost. 2006. Nitrogen limitation constrains sustainability of ecosystem response to CO2. Nature 440:922-925.

Reich, P.B., B.A. Hungate, Y. Luo. 2006. Carbon-Nitrogen Interactions in Terrestrial Ecosystems in Response to Rising Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide. Annual Review of Ecology Evolution Systematics 37:611-36.

Savva, Y., Oleksyn, J., Reich, P.B., Tjoelker, M.G., Vaganov, E.A., Modrzynski, J. 2006. Interannual growth response of Norway spruce to climate along an altitudinal gradient in the Tatra Mountains, Poland. Trees 20:735-746.

Shipley, B., M.J. Lechowicz, I. Wright & P.B. Reich. 2006. Fundamental tradeoffs generating the worldwide leaf economics spectrum. Ecology 87(3):535-541.

Strengbom, J., P.B. Reich. 2006. Elevated CO2 and increased N supply reduce leaf disease on Solidago rigida, but does not affect the negative impact of disease on photosynthetic rate. Oecologia 149:519-525.

Tilman, D., P.B. Reich, J.M.H. Knops. 2006. Biodiversity and ecosystem stability in a decade-long grassland experiment. Nature 441:629-632.

West, J.B., S.E. Hobbie, P.B. Reich. 2006. Effects of plant species diversity, atmospheric [CO2], and N addition on gross rates of inorganic N release from soil organic matter. Global Change Biology 12:1400-1408.

Withington, J., P.B. Reich, J. Oleksyn, D.M. Eissenstat. 2006. Comparisons of structure and life span in roots and leaves among temperate trees. Ecological Monographs 76(3):381-397.

Wright, I.J., Reich, P.B., Atkin, O.K., Lusk, C.H., Tjoelker, M.G. & Westoby, M. 2006. Irradiance, temperature and rainfall influence leaf respiration among woody species: evidence from comparisons across 20 sites. New Phytologist 169: 309-319.

Wright, J.P., Naeem, S., Hector, A., Lehman, C., Reich, P.B., Schmid, B., Tilman, D. 2006. Conventional functional classification schemes underestimate the relationship with ecosystem functioning. Ecology Letters 9:111–120.


Craine, J.M., P.B. Reich. 2005. Leaf-level light compensation points in shade-tolerant woody species. New Phytologist 166:710-713.

Dickie, I.A., and P.B. Reich. 2005. Ectomycorrhizal fungal communities at forest edges. Journal of Ecology 93:244-255.

Dickie, I.A., S.A. Schnitzer, P.B. Reich, S. Hobbie. 2005. Spatially disjunct effects of co-occurring competition and facilitation. Ecology Letters 8:1191-1200.

Dijkstra, F.A., S.E. Hobbie, P.B. Reich, J.M.H. Knops. 2005. Divergent effects of elevated CO2, N fertilization, and plant diversity on soil C and N dynamics in a grassland field experiment. Plant and Soil 272:41-52.

Dovciak, M, L.E. Frelich, P.B. Reich. 2005. Pathways in old-field succession to white pine: seed rain, shade, and climate effects. Ecological Monographs 75:363-378.

Friedman, S.K., P.B. Reich. 2005. Regional legacies of logging: Departure from presettlement forest conditions in northern Minnesota. Ecological Applications 15:726-744.

Hale, C.M., L.E. Frelich, P.B. Reich and J. Pastor. 2005. Effects of European earthworm invasion on soil characteristics in northern hardwood forests of Minnesota, U.S.A. Ecosystems 8(8):911-927.

Johansson, P., Reich, P.B. 2005. Population size and fire intensity determine post-fire abundance in grassland lichens. Applied Vegetation Science 8:193-198.

Knight, K., P.B. Reich. 2005. Opposite relationships between invasibility and native species richness at patch versus landscape scales. Oikos 109:81-88.

Lee, T.D., Bolstad, P.V., Reich, P.B. 2005. Acclimation of leaf respiration to temperature is rapid and related to SLA, soluble sugars and leaf N across three temperate deciduous tree species. Functional Ecology 19:640-647.

Niklas, K.J., T. Owens, P.B. Reich, E.D. Cobb. 2005. Nitrogen/Phosphorous leaf stoichiometry and the scaling of plant growth. Ecology Letters 8:636-642.

Reich, P.B. 2005. Global biogeography of plant chemistry: filling in the blanks. New Phytologist 168:263-266.

Reich, P.B., J. Oleksyn, J. Modrzynski, P. Mrozinski, S.E. Hobbie, D.M. Eissenstat, J. Chorover, O.A. Chadwick, C.M. Hale, M.G. Tjoelker. 2005. Linking litter calcium, earthworms, and soil properties: a common garden test with 14 tree species. Ecology Letters 8: 811-818.

Tjoelker, M., J.M. Craine, D. Wedin, P.B. Reich, D. Tilman. 2005. Linking leaf and root trait syndromes among 39 grassland and savannah species. New Phytologist 167:493-508.

West J.B., J. HilleRisLambers, T.D. Lee, S.E. Hobbie and P.B. Reich. 2005. Legume species identity and soil nitrogen supply determine symbiotic nitrogen-fixation responses to elevated atmospheric [CO2]. New Phytologist 167:523-530.

Wright I.J., Reich P.B., Cornelissen J.H.C., Falser, D.S., Garnier, E., Hikosaka K., Lamont, B.B., Lee, W., Oleksyn J., Osada, N., Poorter H., Villar, R., Warton, D.I., Westoby M. 2005. Assessing the generality of global leaf trait relationships. New Phytologist 166:485-496.

Wright I.J., Reich P.B., Cornelissen J.H.C., Falser, D.S., Groom P.K., Hikosaka K., Lee W., Lusk C.H., Niinemets Ü., Oleksyn J., Osada N., Poorter H., Warton, D.I., Westoby M. 2005. Modulation of leaf economic traits and trait relationships by climate. Global Ecology and Biogeography 14:411-421.

Wythers, K.R., P.B. Reich, M.G. Tjoelker, P.B. Bolstad. 2005. Foliar respiration acclimation to temperature and temperature variable Q10 alter ecosystem carbon balance. Global Change Biology 11:435-449.


Dickie, I.A., R.C. Guza, S.E. Krazewski, P.B. Reich. 2004. Shared ectomycorrhizal fungi between a herbaceous perennial (Helianthemum bicknellii) and oak (Quercus) seedlings. New Phytologist 164:375-382.

Dijkstra, F., S. Hobbie, P. Reich, J. Knops. 2004. Nitrogen deposition and plant species interact to influence soil carbon stabilization. Ecology Letters 7:1192-1198.

Ellsworth, D.S., P.B. Reich, E.S. Naumburg, G.W. Koch, M. Kubiske, and S. Smith. 2004. Photosynthesis, carboxylation and leaf nitrogen responses of 16 species to elevated pCO2 across four free-air CO2 enrichment experiments in forest, grassland and desert. Global Change Biology 10:2121-2138.

Hale, C.M., L.E. Frelich, P.B. Reich. 2004. Allometric equations for estimation of ash-free dry mass from length measurements for selected European earthworm species (Lumbricidae) in the western Great Lakes region. American Midland Naturalist 151(1):179-185.

Hockman, E., T. Lee, P. Reich. 2004. The effect of atmospheric carbon dioxide on photosynthesis and water use efficiency across 13 prairie species. UW-Eau Claire Student Research Day. April 26, 2004.

Losek, L., T. Lee, P. Reich. 2004. Contrasting C3 and C4 prairie species response to atmospheric CO2 over a growing season. UW-Eau Claire Student Research Day. April 26, 2004.

Reich, P.B., J. Oleksyn. 2004. Global patterns of plant leaf N and P in relation to temperature and latitude. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 101:11001-11006.

Reich, P.B., D. Tilman, S. Naeem, D. Ellsworth, J. Knops, J. Craine, D. Wedin, J. Trost. 2004. Species and functional diversity independently influence biomass accumulation and its response to CO2 and N. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 101:10101-10106.

Weyenberg, S.A, L.E. Frelich, P.B. Reich. 2004. Logging versus fire: how does disturbance type influence the abundance of eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) regeneration? Silva Fennica 38:179-194.

Worm K.A., T.D. Lee, and P.B. Reich. 2004. Variation in plant photosynthetic and biomass responses to species richness, CO2 and N: Role of unique functional attributes. The Ecological Society of America 89th Annual Meeting Abstracts; August 1-6, 2004, Portland, OR. Washington D.C.: The Ecological Society of America. Portland, OR. Washington D.C.: The Ecological Society of America.

Wright I. J., P.B. Reich, M. Westoby, D. Ackerly, Z. Baruch, J. Cavender-Bares, T. Chapin, H. Cornelissen, M. Diemer, E. Garnier, J. Gulias, K. Hikosaka, B. Lamont. 2004. The worldwide leaf economics spectrum. Nature 428:821-827.


Craine, J. M., D. A. Wedin, F. S. Chapin, III, P. B. Reich. 2003. The dependence of root system properties on root system biomass of 10 North American grassland species. Plant and Soil 250:39-47.

Craine, J.M, P.B. Reich, D.G. Tilman, D. Ellsworth, D. Wedin, J. Fargione, J. Knops, S. Naeem. 2003. The role of plant species in biomass production and response to elevated CO2 and N. Ecology Letters 6:623-630.

Dickie, I.A., P.G. Avis, D.J. McLaughlin, P.B. Reich. 2003. Good-Enough RFLP Matcher (GERM) Program. Mycorrhiza 13:171-172.

Dovciak, M., P.B. Reich, L.E. Frelich. 2003. Seed rain, safe sites, competing vegetation, and soil resources spatially structure white pine (Pinus strobus L.) regeneration and recruitment. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 33:1892-1904.

Frelich, L.E., J. Machado, and P.B. Reich. 2003. Fine-scale environmental variation and structure of understory plant communities in two old-growth pine forests. Journal of Ecology 91:283-293.

Frelich, L.E. and P.B. Reich. 2003. Perspectives on development of definitions and values related to old-growth forests. A chapter in Old-Growth Forests in Canada--A Science Perspective, edited by A. Moesseler

Kieliszewska-Rokicka, B., J. Oleksyn, R. Zytkowiak, P.B. Reich. 2003. Links between root carbohydrates and seasonal patterns of soil microbial activity of diverse Pinus sylvestris populations grown in a provenance plantation. Polish Journal of Botany 72:167-173.

Lee, T., P. Reich, M.G. Tjoelker. 2003. Legume presence increases photosynthesis and N concentrations of co-occurring non-fixers but does not modulate their responsiveness to carbon dioxide enrichment. Oecologia 137:22-31.

Lee, T., M. Tjoelker, M.P. Russelle, P.B. Reich. 2003. Contrasting growth responses of an N2-fixing and nonN2-fixing forb to elevated carbon dioxide: dependence on soil N supply. Plant and Soil 255:475-486.

Lusk, C.H., Wright, I., Reich, P.B. 2003. Photosynthetic differences contribute to competitive advantage of evergreen angiosperm trees over evergreen conifers in productive habitats. New Phytologist 160(2):329-336.

Machado, J-L., M.B. Walters, P.B. Reich. 2003. Below-ground resources limit seedling growth in forest understories but do not alter biomass distribution. Annals of Forest Research 60:319-330.

Mitchell, C.E. P.B. Reich, D. Tilman, J.V. Groth. 2003. Effects of elevated CO2, nitrogen deposition, and decreased species diversity on foliar fungal plant disease. Global Change Biology 9(3):438-451.

Oleksyn J., Reich P.B., Żytkowiak R., Karolewski P., Tjoelker M.G. 2003. Nutrient conservation increases with latitude of origin in European Pinus sylvestris populations. Oecologia 136:220-135.

Reich, P.B., C. Buschena, M. Tjoelker, K. Wrage, J. Knops, D. Tilman, J-L Machado. 2003. Variation in growth rate and ecophysiology among 34 grassland and savanna species under contrasting N supply: a test of functional group differences. New Phytologist 157:617-631.

Reich P.B., Wright I.J., Cavender-Bares J., Craine J.M., Oleksyn J., Westoby M., Walters M.B. 2003. The evolution of plant functional variation: traits, spectra, and strategies. International Journal of Plant Sciences 164(3 Suppl.): S143-S164.

Withington, J.M., Elkin, A.D., Bułaj, B., Olesiński, J., Tracy, K.N., Bouma, T.J., Oleksyn, J., Anderson, L.J., Modrzyński, J., Reich, P.B., Eissenstat, D.M. 2003. The impact of material used for minirhizotron tubes for root research. New Phytologist 160:533-544.

Wolf, J, N.C. Johnson, D.L. Rowland, P.B. Reich. 2003. Elevated carbon dioxide and plant diversity impact arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal spore communities. New Phytologist 157:579-588.

Wright, I.J, P.B. Reich, M. Westoby. 2003. Least-Cost Input Mixtures of Water and Nitrogen for Photosynthesis. American Naturalist 161:98-111.


Craine, J.M., D.G. Tilman, D.A. Wedin, P. Reich, M.G. Tjoelker, J.M.H. Knops. 2002. Functional traits, productivity and effects on nitrogen cycling of 33 grassland species. Functional Ecology 16:563-574.

Craine, J.M., D.A. Wedin, F.S. Chapin, III, P.B. Reich. 2002. Relationship between the structure of root systems and resource use for 11 North American grassland plants. Plant Ecology 165:85-100.

Frelich, L.E., P.B. Reich. 2002. Dynamics of old-growth oak forests in the Eastern United States. In: The ecology and management of oaks for wildlife. Eds, WJ McShea and WH Healy. John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD Chapter 8, pp. 113-126.

Kennedy, T., S. Naeem, K. Howe, J. Knops, D. Tilman, P. Reich. 2002. Biodiversity as a barrier to ecological invasion. Nature 417:636-638.

Oleksyn et al 2002. Needle nutrients in geographically diverse Pinus sylvestris L. populations. Ann. Forest Science 59:1-18.

Ollinger, SV, Aber, J.D., P.B. Reich, & R. Freuder. 2002. Interactive effects of nitrogen deposition, tropospheric ozone, elevated CO2 and land use history on the carbon dynamics of northern hardwood forests. Global Change Biology 8:545-562.

Reich, P.B. 2002. Root-Shoot Relationships: Optimality in Acclimation and Allocation or the "Emperor's New Clothes"? In: Plant Roots: the Hidden Half, Chapter 12, pp 205-220 (eds. Y. Waisel, A. Eshel, U. Kafkafi), Marcel Dekker, Inc. New York.

Reich, P.B & L.E. Frelich. 2002. Temperate Deciduous Forests. (.pdf) In: Encyclopedia of Global Change, Volume 2, The Earth system: biological and ecological dimensions of global environmental change pp. 565-569 (eds. H. A. Mooney and J.G. Canadell), John Wiley and Sons, Chichester.

Schnitzer, S.A., P.B. Reich, B. Bergner, W.P. Carson. 2002. Herbivore and pathogen damage on grassland and woodland plants: a test of the herbivore uncertainty principle. Ecology Letters 5:531-539.

Tilman, D., J. Knops, D. Wedin, P. Reich. 2002. Experimental and observational studies of diversity, productivity and stability. pp. 42-70. In: The functional consequences of biodiversity (A. Kinzig, S Pacala and D Tilman, eds), Monographs in Population Biology, Princeton University Press.

Tilman, D., J. Knops, D. Wedin, P. Reich. 2002. Plant diversity and composition: effects on productivity and nutrient dynamics of experimental grasslands. In: Biodiversity and Ecosystem Function (Loreau et al., eds).

Wright, I.J, P.B. Reich, & M. Westoby. 2002. Convergence towards higher leaf mass per area in dry and nutrient-poor habitats has different consequence for leaf life-span. J Ecology 90:534-543.


Cornett, M., L. Frelich, K. Puettmann, P. Reich. 2001. Comparing the importance of seedbed and canopy type in the restoration of upland Thuja occidentalis forests of northeastern Minnesota. Restoration Ecology 9:386-396.

Craine, J.M. and P.B. Reich. 2001. Elevated CO2 and nitrogen supply alter leaf longevity of grassland species. New Phytologist 150:397-403.

Craine, J.M., D.A. Wedin, P.B. Reich. 2001. Grassland species effects on soil CO2 flux track the effects of elevated CO2 and nitrogen. New Phytologist 150:425-434.

Craine, J.M., D.A. Wedin, P.B. Reich. 2001. The response of soil CO2 flux to changes in atmospheric CO2, nitrogen supply, and plant diversity. Global Change Biology 7:947-953.

Davis, M.A., D. Tilman, S. Hobbie, C. Lehman, P.B. Reich, J. M. Knops, S. Naeem, M.E. Ritchie, D.A. Wedin. 2001. Public access and use of electronically archived data: ethical considerations. Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America 82:90-91.

Dovciak, M., L.E. Frelich, P.B. Reich. 2001. Discordance in spatial patterns of white pine (Pinus strobus) size classes in a patchy near-boreal forest. J Ecology 89:280-291.

Frelich, L.E., P.B. Reich. 2001. Fire ecology, Forest, boreal, and Forest, temperate (3 articles). Macmillan Reference USA, Biology for Students.

Friedman, S.K., P.B. Reich, L.E. Frelich. 2001. Multiple scale composition and spatial distribution patterns of the north-eastern Minnesota presettlement forest. Journal of Ecology 89:538-554.

Kaelke, C.M., E.L. Kruger, P.B. Reich. 2001. Trade-offs in seedling survival, growth, and physiology among hardwood species of contrasting successional status along a light-availability gradient. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 31: 1602-1616.

Lee, T.D., M.G. Tjoelker, D.S. Ellsworth, P.B. Reich. 2001. Leaf gas exchange responses of 13 prairie grassland species to elevated CO2 and increased nitrogen supply.  New Phytologist 150(2):405-418.

Oleksyn, J., P.B. Reich, M.G. Tjoelker, W. Chalupka. 2001. Biogeographic differences in shoot elongation patterns among European Scots pine populations. Forest Ecology and Management 148:207-220.

Oleksyn, J., Karolewski, P., Reich, P.B., Rachwal, L. 2001. Genotype x environment interaction in Scots pine foliar nutrition in sites near different pollution sources. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum 23:23.

Peterson, D., PB Reich. 2001. Prescribed Fire in Oak Savanna: Fire frequency effects on stand structure and dynamics. Ecological Applications 11(3):914-927.

Reich, P.B. 2001. Body size, geometry, longevity and metabolism: do plant leaves behave like animal bodies? Trends in Ecology and Evolution 16:674-680.

Reich P.B., P. Bolstad. 2001. Chapter 11 Productivity of Evergreen and Deciduous Temperate Forests in Terrestrial Global Productivity. pp. 245-283. Academic Press.

Reich, P.B., J. Knops, D. Tilman, J. Craine, D. Ellsworth, M. Tjoelker, T. Lee, S. Naeem, D. Wedin, D. Bahauddin, G. Hendrey, S Jose. K. Wrage, J. Goth, and W. Bengston. 2001a. Plant diversity enhances ecosystem responses to elevated CO2 and nitrogen deposition. Nature 410:809-812.

Reich, P.B., D. Tilman, J. Craine, D. Ellsworth, M.G. Tjoelker, J. Knops, D. Wedin, S. Naeem, D. Bahauddin, J. Goth, W. Bengston, T.D. Lee. 2001. Do species and functional groups differ in acquisition and use of C, N and water under varying atmospheric CO2 and N availability regimes? A field test with 16 grassland species. New Phytologist 150:435-448.

Reich, P.B., P. Bakken, D. Carlson, L. Frelich, S. Friedman & D.F. Grigal. 2001b. Influence of logging, fire, and forest type on biodiversity and productivity in southern boreal forests. Ecology 82(10):2731-2748.

Reich, P.B., D.A. Peterson, K. Wrage, and D. Wedin. 2001a. Fire and vegetation effects on productivity and nitrogen cycling across a forest-grassland continuum. Ecology 82:1703-1719.

Tilman, D., PB Reich, J. Knops, D. Wedin, T. Mielke, C. Lehman. 2001. Diversity and productivity in a long-term grassland experiment. Science 294:943-845.

Tjoelker, M.G., J. Oleksyn, T.D. Lee and P.B. Reich. 2001. Direct inhibition of leaf dark respiration by elevated CO2 is minor in 12 grassland species. New Phytologist 150(2):419-424.

Tjoelker, M.G., Oleksyn, J., Reich, P.B. 2001. Modelling respiration of vegetation: evidence for a general temperature-dependent Q 10. Global Change Biology 7: 223–230.

Wright, I.J, P.B. Reich, M. Westoby. 2001. Strategy shifts in leaf physiology, structure and nutrient content between species of high- and low-rainfall and high- and low-nutrient habitats. Functional Ecology 15:423-434.


Cornett, M.W., L.E. Frelich, K.J. Puettmann, P.B. Reich. 2000. Conservation implications of browsing by Odocoileus virginianus in remnant upland Thuja occidentalis forests. Biological Conservation 93:359-369.

Cornett, M.W., P.B. Reich, K.J. Puettmenn, L.E. Frelich. 2000. Seedbed and moisture availability determine safe sites for early Thuja occidentalis (Cupressaceae) regeneration. (.pdf) Am. J. Botany 87(12):1807-1814.

Davis et al. 2000. Restoring savanna using fire: impact on the breeding bird community. (.pdf) Restoration Ecology 8(1):30-40.

Kloeppel, B.K., S.T. Gower, J.G. Vogel & P.B. Reich. 2000. Leaf-level resource use for evergreen and deciduous conifers along a resource availability gradient. (.pdf) Functional Ecology 14:281-292.

Lusk, C & P.B. Reich. 2000. Relationships of leaf dark respiration with light environment and tissue nitrogen content in juveniles of 11 cold-temperate tree species. (.pdf) Oecologia 123:318-329.

Oleksyn, J., R. Zytkowiak, P. Karolewski, P.B. Reich, M.G. Tjoelker. 2000. Genetic and environmental control of seasonal carbohydrate dynamics in trees of diverse Pinus sylvestris populations. (.pdf) Tree Physiology 20:837-847.

Oleksyn et al 2000b. Ontogenetic patterns of leaf CO2 exchange, morphology and chemistry in Betula pendula trees. (.pdf) Trees 14:271-281.

Oleksyn, J., P.B. Reich, L. Rachwal, M.G. Tjoelker & P. Karolewski. 2000a. Variation in aboveground net primary production of diverse European Pinus sylvestris populations. (.pdf) Trees 14:415-421.

Reich, P.B. 2000. Do tall trees scale physiological heights? (.pdf) Trends in Ecology and Evolution 15:41-42.

Tilman, D., P. Reich, H. Phillips, M. Menton, A. Patel, E. Vos, D. Peterson, J. Knops. 2000. Fire suppression and ecosystem carbon storage.(.pdf) Ecology 81:2680-2685.

Vanderklein, D.W. & P.B. Reich. 2000. European larch and eastern white pine respond similarly during three years of partial defoliation. (.pdf) Tree Physiology 20:283-287.

Walters, M.B. and P.B. Reich 2000. Trade-offs in low-light CO2 exchange: a component of variation in shade tolerance among cold temperate tree seedlings. (.pdf) Functional Ecology 14:155-165.

Walters, M.B. & P.B. Reich. 2000. Seed size, nitrogen supply and growth rate affect tree seedling survival in deep shade. (.pdf) Ecology 81(7):1887-1901.

Westoby, M., D. Wharton, P. Reich. 2000. The time value of leaf area. (.pdf) The American Naturalist 155(5):649-656.


Ackerly, D. & P.B. Reich. 1999. Convergence and correlations among leaf size and function: a comparative test using independent contrasts. American Journal of Botany 86:1272-1281.

Craine, J., D. Berin, P.B. Reich, J. Knops, D. Tilman. 1999. Measurement of leaf longevity of 14 species of grasses and forbs using a novel approach. New Phytologist 142:475-481.

Davis, M.A., K.J. Wrage, P.B. Reich, M.G. Tjoelker, T. Schaeffer, C. Muermann. 1999. Survival, growth and photosynthesis of tree seedlings competing with herbaceous vegetation along a water-light-nitrogen gradient. Plant Ecology 145:341-350.

Frelich, L.E. & P.B. Reich. 1999. Neighborhood effects, disturbance severity, and community stability in forests. Ecosystems 2:151-166.

Knops, J.M., D. Tilman, N.M. Haddad, S. Naeem, C.E. Mitchell, J. Haarstad, M.E. Ritchie, K.M. Howe, P.B. Reich, E. Siemann, J. Groth.1999. Effects of plant species richness on invasion dynamics, disease outbreaks, insect abundances and diversity. Ecology Letters 2: 286-293.

Machado, J.L. & P. B. Reich. 1999. Evaluation of several measures of canopy openness as predictors of photosynthetic photon flux density in deeply shaded conifer-dominated forest understory. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 29:1438-1444.

Oleksyn, J., P.B. Reich, W. Chalupka & M.G. Tjoelker. 1999. Differential above- and below-ground biomass accumulation of European Pinus sylvestris populations in a 12-year old provenance experiment. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research 14:7-17.

Oleksyn, J., P.B. Reich, P. Karolewski, M.G. Tjoelker & W. Chalupka. 1999. Nutritional status of pollen and needles of diverse Pinus sylvestris populations grown at sites with contrasting pollution. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 110:195-212.

Peterson, A.G., J.T. Ball, Y. Luo, C.B. Field, P.B. Reich, P. S. Curtis, K. L. Griffin, C. A. Gunderson, R. J. Norby, D. T. Tissue, M. Forstreuter, A. Rey, C. S. Vogel, and CMEAL participants. 1999. The photosynthesis-leaf nitrogen relationship at ambient and elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide: a meta-analysis. Global Change Biology 5:331-346.

Prus-Glowacki, W., A. Wojnicka-Poltorak, J. Oleksyn, P.B. Reich. 1999. Industrial pollutants tend to increase genetic diversity: evidence from field-grown European Scots pine populations. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 116:395-402.

Reich, P.B., D.S. Ellsworth, M. B. Walters, J. Vose, C. Gresham, J. Volin and W. Bowman. 1999. Generality of leaf traits relationships: a test across six biomes. Ecology 80:1955-1969.

Reich, P.B., D. Turner, P. Bolstad. 1999. An approach to spatially-distributed modeling of net primary production (NPP) at the landscape scale and its application in validation of EOS NPP products. Remote Sensing of Environment 70:69-81.

Tjoelker, M.G., P.B. Reich, J. Oleksyn. 1999. Changes in leaf nitrogen and carbohydrate underlie temperature and CO2 acclimation of dark respiration in five boreal tree species. Plant, Cell & Environment 22:767-778.

Tjoelker, M.G., J. Oleksyn, P.B. Reich. 1999. Acclimation of respiration to temperature and CO2 in seedlings of boreal tree species in relation to plant size and relative growth rate. Global Change Biology 5:679-692.

Vanderklein, D.W. and P.B. Reich. 1999. The effect of defoliation intensity and history on photosynthesis, growth and carbon reserves of two conifers with contrasting leaf lifespans and growth habits. New Phytologist 144:121-132.

Walters, M.B., P.B. Reich. 1999. Low light carbon balance and shade tolerance in the seedlings of woody plants: do winter deciduous and broad-leaved evergreen species differ? New Phytologist 143:143-154.


Cornett, M.W., K.J. Puettmann, P.B. Reich. 1998. Canopy type, forest floor, predation, and competition influence conifer seedling emergence and early survival in two Minnesota conifer-deciduous forests. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 28:196-205.

Davis, M.A., K.J. Wrage, P.B. Reich. 1998. Competition between tree seedlings and herbaceous vegetation: support for a theory of resource supply and demand. J. Ecology 86:652-661.

Frelich, L.E., P.B. Reich. 1998. Disturbance severity and threshold responses in the boreal forest. Conservation Ecology 2(2):7.

Frelich, L.E, S.S. Sugita, P.B. Reich, M.B. Davis, S.K. Friedman. 1998. Neighborhood effects in forests: implications for within stand patch structure and managemen. J. Ecology 86:149-161.

Oleksyn, J., P. Karolewski, M. J. Giertych, R. Zytkowiak, P. B. Reich & M.G. Tjoelker. 1998. Primary and secondary host plants differ in leaf-level photosynthetic response to herbivory: evidence from Alnus and Betula grazed by the alder beetle, Agelastica alni. New Phytologist 140: 239-249.

Oleksyn, J., J. Modrzynski, M.G. Tjoelker, R. Zytkowiak, P.B. Reich, P. Karolewski. 1998. Growth and physiology of Picea abies populations from elevational transects: common garden evidence for altitudinal ecotypes and cold adaptation. Functional Ecology 12:573-590.

Oleksyn, J., M.G. Tjoelker, P.B. Reich. 1998. Adaptation to changing environment in Scots pine populations across a latitudinal gradient. Silva Fennica 32:129-140.

Prus-Gowacki, W., J. Oleksyn, P. B. Reich. 1998. Relation between genetic structure and susceptibility to air pollution of European Pinus sylvestris populations from a IUFRO-1982 provenance experiment. Chemosphere 36: 813-818

Raffa, K.F., S.C. Krause & P.B. Reich. 1998. Long-term effects of defoliation on red pine suitability to insects feeding on diverse plant tissues. Ecology 79:2352-2364.

Reich, P.B. 1998. Variation among plant species in leaf turnover rates and associated traits: implications for growth at all life stages. Pages 467-487 in H. Lambers, H. Poorter, and M Van Vureen, editors. Inherent variation in plant growth. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, Netherlands.

Reich, P.B., D.S. Ellsworth, M. B. Walters. 1998b. Leaf structure (specific leaf area) regulates photosynthesis-nitrogen relations: evidence from within and across species and functional groups. Functional Ecology 12:948-958.

Reich, P.B., M.G. Tjoelker, M.B. Walters, D. Vanderklein, C. Buschena. 1998c. Close association of RGR, leaf and root morphology, seed mass and shade tolerance in seedlings of nine boreal tree species grown in high and low light. Functional Ecology 12:327-338.

Reich, P.B., M.B. Walters, D.S. Ellsworth, J. Vose, J. Volin, C. Gresham, W. Bowman. 1998. Relationships of leaf dark respiration to leaf N, SLA, and life-span: a test across biomes and functional groups. Oecologia 114:471-482.

Reich, P.B., M.B. Walters, M.G. Tjoelker, D. Vanderklein & C. Buschena. 1998a. Photosynthesis and respiration rates depend on leaf and root morphology and nitrogen concentration in nine boreal tree species differing in relative growth rate. Functional Ecology 12:395-405.

Tjoelker, M.G., J. Oleksyn & P.B. Reich. 1998. Seedlings of five boreal tree species differ in acclimation of net photosynthesis to elevated CO2 and temperature. Tree Physiology 18: 715-726.

Tjoelker, M.G., J. Oleksyn & P.B. Reich. 1998. Temperature and ontogeny mediate growth response to elevated CO2 in seedlings of five boreal tree species. (.pdf) New Phytologist 140:197-210.

Volin, J.C., P.B. Reich & T.G. Givnish. 1998. Elevated carbon dioxide ameliorates the effects of ozone on photosynthesis and growth: species respond similarly regardless of photosynthetic pathway or plant functional group. New Phytologist 138:315-325.


Cornett, M.W., P.B. Reich & K.J. Puettmann. 1997. Canopy feedbacks and microtopography regulate conifer seedling distribution in two Minnesota conifer-deciduous forests. Ecoscience 4:353-364.

Gerlach, J., P.B. Reich, K. Puettmann & T. Baker. 1997. Species, diversity, and density affect tree seedling mortality from Armillaria root rot. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 27:1509-1512.

Kruger E.L. & P.B. Reich. 1997a. Responses of hardwood regeneration to fire in mesic forest openings. I. Post-fire community dynamics. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 27:1822-1831.

Kruger E.L. & P.B. Reich. 1997b. Responses of hardwood regeneration to fire in mesic forest openings. II. Leaf gas exchange, nitrogen concentration, and water status. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 27:1832-1840.

Kruger E.L. & P.B. Reich. 1997c. Responses of hardwood regeneration to fire in mesic forest openings. III. Whole-plant growth, biomass distribution and nitrogen and carbohydrate relations. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 27:1841-1850.

Oleksyn, J., P.B. Reich, W. Chalupka & M.G. Tjoelker. 1997. Needle CO2 exchange, buffer capacity, chlorophyll, carbohydrate and phenols content in relation to needle age of Pinus heldreichii Christ- a relict of Tertiary flora. Trees 12:82-89.

Ollinger, SV, Aber, J.D., & P.B. Reich. 1997. Simulating ozone effects on forest productivity: interactions among leaf-, canopy-, and stand-level processes. Ecological Applications 7:1237-1251.

Reich, P.B., D.F. Grigal, J.D. Aber & S.T. Gower. 1997. Nitrogen mineralization and productivity in 50 hardwood and conifer stands on diverse soils. Ecology 78:335-347.

Reich, P.B., M. B. Walters & D.S Ellsworth. 1997. From tropics to tundra: global convergence in plant functioning. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 94:13730-13734.

Tilman, D., J. Knops, D. Wedin, P.B. Reich, M. Ritchie, & E. Siemann. 1997. The influence of functional diversity and composition on ecosystem processes. (.pdf) Science 277:1300-1302.

Walters, M.B. & P.B. Reich. 1997. Growth of Acer saccharum seedlings in deeply shaded understories of northern Wisconsin: effects of nitrogen and water availability. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 27:237-247.


Aber, J.D., P.B. Reich & M.L. Goulden. 1996. Extrapolating leaf CO2 exchange to the canopy: a generalized model of forest photosynthesis validated by eddy correlation. Oecologia 106:267-275.

Ellsworth, D.S. & P.B. Reich. 1996. Photosynthesis and leaf nitrogen of in five Amazonian tree species during early secondary succession. Ecology 77:581-594.

Frelich, L.E. & P.B. Reich. 1996. Old Growth in the Great Lakes Region. In: Eastern Old Growth Forests (M.B. Davis, ed.), Island Press, Washington, D.C. pp. 144-160.

Oleksyn, J., P. Karolewski, M.J. Giertych, A. Werner, M.G. Tjoelker & P.B. Reich. 1996. Altered root growth and plant chemistry of Pinus sylvestris seedlings subjected to aluminum in nutrient solution. Trees 10:135-144.

Reich, P.B., J. Oleksyn & M.G. Tjoelker. 1996. Needle respiration and nitrogen concentration in Scots pine populations from a broad latitudinal range: a common garden test with field grown trees. Functional Ecology 10:768-776.

Reich, P.B., J. Oleksyn, M.G. Tjoelker & J. Modrynzki. 1996. Evidence that longer needle retention of pine and spruce populations at high elevations and high latitudes is largely a phenotypic response. Tree Physiology 16:643-647.

Volin, J.C. & P.B. Reich. 1996. Interaction of carbon dioxide and ozone on C3 and C4 grasses and trees under contrasting nutrient supply. Physiologia Plantarum 97:674-684.

Walters, M.B. & P.B. Reich. 1996. Are shade tolerance, survival, and growth linked? Low light and nitrogen effects on hardwood seedlings. Ecology 77:841-853.


Aber, J.D., S.V. Ollinger, C.A. Federer, P.B. Reich, M. Gouldin, D.W. Kicklighter, J.M. Melillo, R.G. Lathrop, J.M. Ellis. 1995. Predicting the effects of climate change on water yield and forest production in the northeastern United States. Climate Research 5:207-222.

Clancy, K.M., M.R. Wagner, P.B. Reich. 1995. Ecophysiology and insect herbivory. In: Ecophysiology of Coniferous Forests (eds WK Smith and TM Hinckley), pp. 125-180, Academic Press, San Diego.

Frelich, L.E. & P.B. Reich. 1995. Spatial patterns and succession in a Minnesota southern-boreal forest. Ecological Monographs 65:325-346.

Frelich, L.E. & P.B. Reich. 1995. Neighborhood effects, disturbance, and succession in forests of the western Great Lakes Region. Ecoscience 2:148-158.

Puettmann, K.J. & P.B. Reich. 1995. The differential sensitivity of red pine and quaking aspen to competition. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 25: 1731-1737.

Reich, P.B. 1995. Phenology of tropical forests: patterns, causes and consequence. Canadian Journal of Botany 73:164-174.

Reich, P.B., D.S. Ellsworth & C. Uhl. 1995. Leaf carbon and nutrient assimilation and conservation in species of differing successional status in an oligotrophic Amazonian forest. Functional Ecology 9:65-76.

Reich, P.B., B.D. Kloeppel, D.S. Ellsworth & M.B. Walters. 1995. Different photosynthesis-nitrogen relations in evergreen conifers and deciduous hardwood tree species. Oecologia 104:24-30.

Reich, P.B., T. Koike, S.T. Gower and A.W. Schoettle. 1995. Causes and consequences of variation in conifer leaf life span. In: Ecophysiology of Coniferous Forests (eds WK Smith and TM Hinckley), pp. 225-254, Academic Press, San Diego.

Tjoelker, M.G., J.C. Volin, J. Oleksyn & P.B. Reich. 1995. Interaction of ozone pollution and light on photosynthesis in a forest canopy experiment. Plant, Cell and Environment 18:895-905.


Oleksyn, J., W. Prus-Gowacki, M. Giertych & P.B. Reich. 1994. Relation between genetic diversity, productivity and pollution impact in a 1912 experiment with East European Pinus sylvestris populations. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 24:2390-2394.

Oleksyn, J. & P.B. Reich. 1994. Habitat destruction and biodiversity in Poland. Conservation Biology 8:943-960.

Reich, P.B., J. Oleksyn & M.G. Tjoelker. 1994. Seed mass effects on germination and growth of diverse European Scots pine populations. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 24:306-320.

Reich, P.B., J. Oleksyn & M.G. Tjoelker. 1994. Relationships between aluminum, calcium and net carbon dioxide exchange among diverse Scots pine provenances under pollution stress in Poland. Oecologia 97:82-92.

Reich, P.B. & M.B. Walters. 1994. Photosynthesis-nitrogen relations in Amazonian tree species. II. Variation in nitrogen vis-à-vis specific leaf area influences mass and area-based expressions. Oecologia 97:73-81.

Reich, P.B., M.B. Walters, D.S. Ellsworth, & C. Uhl. 1994. Photosynthesis-nitrogen relations in Amazonian tree species. I. Patterns among species and communities. Oecologia 97:62-72.

Tjoelker, M.G., J.C. Volin, J. Oleksyn & P.B. Reich. 1994. An open-air system for exposing forest canopy branches to ozone pollution. Plant, Cell & Environment 17:211-218.


Ellsworth, D.S. & P.B. Reich. 1993. Canopy structure and vertical patterns of photosynthesis and related leaf traits in a deciduous forest. Oecologia 96:169-178.

Gower, S.T., P.B. Reich & Y. Son. 1993. Canopy dynamics and aboveground production of five tree species with different leaf longevity's. Tree Physiology 12:327-345.

Ko, L.J. & P.B. Reich. 1993. Oak tree effects on soil and herbaceous vegetation in savannas and pastures in Wisconsin. American Midland Naturalist 130:31-42.

Kruger, E.L. & P.B. Reich. 1993a. Coppicing alters ecophysiology of Quercus rubra saplings in Wisconsin forest openings. Physiologia Plantarum 89:741-750.

Kruger, E.L. & P.B. Reich. 1993b. Coppicing affects growth, root:shoot relations and ecophysiology of potted Quercus rubra seedlings. Physiologia Plantarum 89:751-760.

Lindroth, R.L., P.B. Reich, M.G. Tjoelker, J.C. Volin & J. Oleksyn. 1993. Light environment alters response to ozone stress in Acer saccharum Marsh. and hybrid Populus L. seedlings. III. Consequences for gypsy moth performance. New Phytologist 124:647-651.

Reich, P.B. 1993. Reconciling apparent discrepancies among studies relating life-span, structure and function of leaves in contrasting plant life forms and climates: "the blind men and the elephant retold". Functional Ecology 7:721-725.

Reich, P.B., M.B. Walters, S.C. Krause, D. Vanderklein, K.F. Raffa, T. Tabone. 1993. Growth, nutrition and gas exchange of Pinus resinosa following artificial defoliation. Trees 7:67-77.

Tjoelker, M.G., J.C. Volin, J. Oleksyn & P.B. Reich. 1993. Light environment alters response to ozone stress in Acer saccharum Marsh. and hybrid Populus L. seedlings. In situ net CO2 exchange and growth. New Phytologist 124:627-636.

Volin, J.C., M.G. Tjoelker, J. Oleksyn & P.B. Reich. 1993. Light environment alters response to ozone stress in Acer saccharum Marsh. and hybrid Populus L. seedlings. II. Diagnostic gas exchange and leaf chemistry. New Phytologist 124:637-646.

Walters, M.B., E.L. Kruger & P.B. Reich. 1993a. Growth, biomass distribution and CO2 exchange of northern hardwood seedlings in high and low light: relationships with successional status and shade tolerance. Oecologia 94:7-16.

Walters, M.B., E.L. Kruger & P.B. Reich. 1993b. Relative growth rate in relation to physiological and morphological traits for northern hardwood seedlings: species, light environment and ontogenetic considerations. Oecologia 96:219-231.


Ellsworth, D.S. & P.B. Reich. 1992. Leaf mass per area, nitrogen content and photosynthetic carbon gain in Acer saccharum seedlings in contrasting forest light environments. Functional Ecology 6:423-435.

Ellsworth, D.S. & P.B. Reich. 1992. Water relations and gas exchange of Acer saccharum seedlings in contrasting natural light and water regimes. Tree Physiology 10:1-20.

Oleksyn, J., W. Chalupka, M.G. Tjoelker & P.B. Reich. 1992. Geographic origin of Pinus sylvestris populations influences the effects of air pollution on flowering and growth. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution 62:201-212.

Oleksyn, J., M.G. Tjoelker & P.B. Reich. 1992. Growth and biomass partitioning of populations of European Pinus sylvestris L. under simulated 50º and 60º N daylengths: evidence for photoperiodic ecotypes. New Phytologist 120:561-574.

Oleksyn, J., M.G. Tjoelker & P.B. Reich. 1992. Whole-plant CO2 exchange of seedlings of two Pinus sylvestris L. provenances grown under simulated photoperiodic conditions of 50º and 60º N. Trees 6:225-231.

Reich, P.B., M.B. Walters & D.S. Ellsworth. 1992. Leaf lifespan in relation to leaf, plant and stand characteristics among diverse ecosystems. Ecological Monographs 62:365-392.

Sutinen, M.L., J.P. Palta & P.B. Reich. 1992. Seasonal differences in freezing stress resistance in two pine species: evaluation of the conductivity method. Tree Physiology 11:241-254.


Reich, P.B. 1991. Forest decline and air pollution (Book Review). Tree Physiology 9:523-526.

Reich, P.B., D.S. Ellsworth & M.B. Walters. 1991. Leaf development and season influence the relationships between leaf nitrogen, leaf mass per area, and photosynthesis in maple and oak trees. Plant, Cell & Environment 14:251-259.

Reich, P.B., C. Uhl, M.B. Walters & D.S. Ellsworth. 1991. Leaf lifespan as a determinant of leaf structure and function among 23 Amazonian tree species.Oecologia 86:16-24.


Reich, P.B., M.D. Abrams, D.S. Ellsworth, E.L. Kruger & T.J. Tabone. 1990. Fire affects ecophysiology and community dynamics of central Wisconsin oak forest regeneration. Ecology 71:2179-2190.

Reich, P.B., D.S. Ellsworth, B.D. Kloeppel, J.H. Fownes & S.T. Gower. 1990. Vertical variation in canopy structure and CO2 exchange of oak-maple forests: influence of ozone, nitrogen and other factors on simulated canopy carbon gain. Tree Physiology 7:329-345.

Reich, P.B. & L. Middendorf. 1990. Sources of variation in porometry data. Plant, Cell and Environment 13: 879.


Harrington, R.A., B.J. Brown & P.B. Reich. 1989. Ecophysiology of exotic and native shrubs in southern Wisconsin. I. Relationship of leaf characteristics, resource availability and phenology to seasonal patterns of carbon gain. Oecologia 80:356-367.

Harrington, R.A., B.J. Brown, P.B. Reich & J.H. Fownes. 1989. Ecophysiology of exotic and native shrubs in southern Wisconsin. II. Annual growth and carbon gain. Oecologia 80:368-373.

Reich, P.B. & T.M. Hinckley. 1989. Influence of pre-dawn water potential and soil-to-leaf hydraulic conductance on maximum daily leaf diffusive conductance in two oak species. Functional Ecology 3:719-726.

Reich, P.B., M.B. Walters, & T.J. Tabone. 1989. Response of Ulmus americana seedlings to varying nitrogen and water status. II. Water and nitrogen-use efficiency in photosynthesis. Tree Physiology 5:173-184.

Walters, M.B. & P.B. Reich. 1989. Response of Ulmus americana seedlings to varying nitrogen and water status. I. Photosynthesis and growth. Tree Physiology 5:159-172.


Reich, P.B. & R. Borchert. 1988. Changes with leaf age in stomatal function of several tropical tree species. Biotropica 20:60-69.

Reich, P.B. & A.W. Schoettle. 1988. Role of phosphorus and nitrogen in photosynthetic and whole plant carbon gain and nutrient-use efficiency in eastern white pine. Oecologia 77:25-33.

Reich, P.B., A.W. Schoettle, H.F. Stroo & R.G. Amundson. 1988. Influence of O3 and acid rain on white pine seedlings grown in five soils. III. Nutrient relations. Canadian Journal of Botany 66:1517-1531.

Reich, P.B., M.B. Walters, & T J. Tabone. 1988. Variation in response of five identical null-balance porometers. Plant, Cell and Environment 11:785-786.

Stroo, H.F., P.B. Reich, A.W. Schoettle & R.G. Amundson. 1988. Influence of O3 and acid rain on white pine seedlings grown in five soils. II. Mycorrhizae. Canadian Journal of Botany 66:1510-1515.


Amundson, R.G., R.J. Kohut, A.W. Schoettle, R.M. Raba & P.B. Reich. 1987. Correlative reduction in whole-plant photosynthesis and yield of winter wheat caused by ozone. Phytopathology 77:75-79.

Reich, P.B. 1987. Quantifying plant response to ozone: a unifying theory. Tree Physiology 3:63-91.

Reich, P.B., A.W. Schoettle, H.F. Stroo, J. Troiano & R.G. Amundson. 1987. Influence of O3 and acid rain on white pine seedlings grown in five soils. I. Net photosynthesis and growth. Canadian Journal of Botany 65: 977-987.

Sena-Gomes, A.R., T.T. Kozlowski & P.B. Reich. 1987. Some physiological responses of Theobroma cacao L. (var. Catango) seedlings to air humidity. New Phytologist 107:591-602.


Amundson, R.G., R.M. Raba, A.W. Schoettle & P.B. Reich. 1986. Response of soybean to low concentrations of ozone: II. Effects on growth, biomass allocation and flowering. Journal of Environmental Quality 15:161-167.

Reich, P.B., A.W. Schoettle & R.G. Amundson. 1986. Effects of ozone and acidic rain on photosynthesis and growth in sugar maple and northern red oak seedlings. Environmental Pollution 40:1-15.

Reich, P.B., A.W. Schoettle, R. Raba & R.G. Amundson. 1986. Response of soybean to low concentrations of ozone: I. Reductions in leaf and whole plant net photosynthesis and leaf chlorophyll content. Journal of Environmental Quality 15:31-36.

Reich, P.B., H.F. Stroo, A.W. Schoettle & R.G. Amundson. 1986. Acid rain and ozone influence mycorrhizal infection in tree seedlings. J. Air Pollution Control Assoc. 36:724-726.


Reich, P.B. & J.P. Lassoie. 1985. Influence of low concentrations of ozone on growth, biomass partitioning, and leaf senescence in young hybrid poplar plants. Environmental Pollution 39:39-51.

Reich, P.B., A.W. Schoettle & R.G. Amundson. 1985. Effects of low concentrations of O3, leaf age, and water stress on leaf diffusive conductance and water-use efficiency in soybean. Physiologia Plantarum 63:58-64.

Reich, P.B., A.W. Schoettle, H. Stroo, J. Troiano, & R.G. Amundson. 1985 Effects of O3, SO2, and simulated acidic rain on mycorrhizal infection in northern red oak. Canadian Journal of Botany 63:2049-2055.

Reich, P.B. & R.G. Amundson. 1985. Ambient levels of O3 reduce net photosynthesis in tree and crop species. Science 230:566-570.


Reich, P.B. 1984. Loss of stomatal function in aging hybrid poplar leaves. Annals of Botany 53:691-698.

Reich, P.B. 1984. Oscillations in stomatal conductance of hybrid poplar leaves in the light and dark. Physiologia Plantarum 61:541-548.

Reich, P.B. & R.G. Amundson. 1984. Low level O3 and/or SO2 exposure causes a linear decline in soybean yield. Environmental Pollution 34:345-355.

Reich, P.B. & R. Borchert. 1984. Water stress and tree phenology in a tropical dry forest in the lowlands of Costa Rica. Journal of Ecology 72:61-74.

Reich, P.B. & J.P. Lassoie. 1984. Effect of low level O3 exposure on leaf diffusive conductance and water-use efficiency in hybrid poplar. Plant, Cell & Environment 7: 661-668.

Reich, P.B. 1984. Leaf stomatal density and diffusive conductance in three amphistomatous hybrid poplar cultivars. New Phytologist 98:231-239.

Reich, P.B. 1984. Relationships between leaf age, irradiance, leaf conductance, CO2 exchange, and water-use efficiency in hybrid poplar. Photosynthetica 18:445-453.

Reich, P.B. J.P. Lassoie & R.G. Amundson. 1984 Reduction in growth of hybrid poplar following field exposure to low levels of O3 and (or) SO2. Canadian Journal of Botany 62:2835-2841.


Reich, P.B. 1983. Effects of low concentrations of O3 on net photosynthesis, dark respiration, and chlorophyll contents in aging hybrid poplar leaves. (.pdf) Plant Physiology 73:291-296.

Lassoie, J.P., P.M. Dougherty, P.B. Reich, T.M. Hinckley, C. Metcalf, S. Dina. 1983. Ecophysio-logical investigations of understory eastern redcedar in central Missouri. Ecology 64: 1355-1366.


Reich, P.B., R.G. Amundson, J.P. Lassoie. 1982. Reduction in soybean yield after exposure to ozone and sulfur dioxide using a linear gradient exposure technique. Water, Air & Soil Pollution 17:29-36.

Reich, P.B. & R. Borchert. 1982. Phenology and ecophysiology of the tropical tree, Tabebuia neochrysantha (Bignoniaceae). Ecology 63:294-299.


Reich, P.B., T.M. Hinckley. 1980. Water relations, soil fertility and plant nutrient composition of a pygmy oak ecosystem. Ecology 61:400-416.

Reich, P.B., R.O. Teskey, P.S. Johnson, T.M. Hinckley. 1980. Periodic root and shoot growth in oak. Forest Science 26:590-598.